The division of human anatomy (Department of Pathology and Human Anatomy), in cooperation with other departments of the University, offers programs leading to the Master of Science and the Doctor of Philosophy degrees in the field of anatomy. The department is an active participant in the systems biology curricula, which consist of interdisciplinary courses and seminars coordinated by the faculties of the Departments of Anatomy and of Physiology and Pharmacology. The degree programs provide opportunities for qualified students to prepare for careers in teaching and research.
The student admitted to the anatomy graduate program will have an undergraduate degree with a strong component of biological sciences. This could include genetics, comparative vertebrate anatomy, and histotechnique although these are not required for admission. Other prerequisites include general physics, general chemistry, and organic chemistry. Computer literacy is expected and a foreign language and courses in statistics are encouraged. Applicants with diverse backgrounds are encouraged to apply, since each applicant is considered on an individual basis.
Graduate programs in anatomy provide opportunities for qualified students to study all aspects of human morphology from both didactic and investigative points of view. Study and research on other species and in other biomedical disciplines may be included in the student's curriculum. Students are introduced to research methods, both literature and laboratory, while working on a significant problem. Students acquire experience in scientific communication by participating in seminars, writing critical reviews and reporting results of research experience either in thesis form or as publishable papers. Details of these programs are available in the "Anatomy Program Guide".The Department of Anatomy encourages the student to build a career in biomedicine on a solid foundation of basic biomedical sciences. Three specialty areas are then available for the MS degree thesis or PhD degree dissertation research:
DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY approaches human anatomy from a developmental perspective, emphasizing the genetic basis of morphogenesis and final structure. Comparative developmental approaches are used to understand the mechanisms employed that regulate structure and function.
NEUROBIOLOGY is an integrated program with advanced courses in neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. Research emphases include neural systems in the regulation of biorhythms; neurocytology; and electron microscopy and sensory systems in development, aging, and diabetes.
Details of the programs in the division of human anatomy are found in the Anatomy Program Guide. The following is a summary of these requirements.
To qualify for this degree the student must complete at least 48 units (including a required religion course) with an overall GPA of at least 3.0. Required courses include: ANAT 537, 541, 542 and 544 for which no grade less than 3.0 is accepted. For each year in residence the student will complete 1 unit of Integrative Biology Seminar (ANAT 605). The remaining units for this degree must include at least 5 units in other basic science courses. When the student writes a thesis, up to 8 units in Anatomy Research (ANAT 697) and 1 unit in Thesis (ANAT 698) may be included in the 48 units. In lieu of a thesis 9 units of additional courses (approved by the faculty and not to include more than 3 units of research) may be presented to meet the requirements for this degree. When these requirements are met granting of the degree is contingent upon a satisfactory performance on a comprehensive examination over the required core courses.
The purpose of the program leading to the doctor of philosophy degree is to give individuals the preparation needed and the opportunity to pursue an in-depth, independent investigation under conditions favorable for the maturation of scholarly attitudes and habits. Admission to this program is based on a demonstration of superior qualifications, either in undergraduate or graduate studies.
Students earning this degree will have a B (3.0) grade or better in each of the core anatomy courses, ANAT 537, 541, 542, 544. In addition they will take 1 unit of Integrative Biology Graduate Seminar (ANAT 605) for each year in residence; and 35 quarter units in advanced anatomy courses, cell biology, biochemistry, physiology, a religion or ethics course and other graduate courses appropriate to the student's goals, with an average G.P.A. of 3.0 or better. The specific course requirements will vary with the student's research emphasis. Final approval of the student's total program will be made by the student's committee in consultation with the anatomy faculty. Approximately 100 units beyond the bachelor's degree are usually completed by the time the Ph.D. is awarded. Teaching experience is required.
Although there is no specific language requirement, students with competencies in natural languages, in addition to English and/or computer languages, have a definite advantage. Depending on their research, some students may be expected to have one or more of these competencies.
The written and oral comprehensive examinations are designed to establish that the student has a broad understanding of structure and function. The student's ability to use that knowledge to identify and design experiments to resolve problems is also tested. Familiarity with the scientific literature and the ability to use that literature to defend the dissertation research proposal are important components of the oral examination.
The student may apply for admission to doctoral candidacy after (a) passing the comprehensive written examinations; (b) passing any other examinations, such as demonstrated proficiency in the use of computers and statistics required by the department; and (c) securing the support of his/her advisory committee by presentation of a dissertation proposal that must be defended orally.
The candidate's capacity for independent investigation and scholarly achievement must be demonstrated by the completion and oral defense of an acceptable dissertation, usually resulting in one to three publications.
For information about requirements and practices to which all graduate students are subject, the student should consult the Policies and General Regulations section of the Graduate School BULLETIN.
Combined-degrees programs allow qualified students to work on combined MD/PhD or DDS/PhD degrees. Details are provided in the Programs and Degrees section.