Loma Linda University

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Steve Lee, MD, PhD
Associate Professor, Otolaryngology & Hed/Neck Surg
School of Medicine
Assistant Professor, Basic Sciences
School of Medicine

Dr. Lee is Vice Chair and Associate Professor of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery at Loma Linda University School of Medicine.  He received his MD and PhD from Loma Linda University and then went on to complete his residency in Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill.  Afterwards he finished a two year fellowship in Advanced Head and Neck Oncologic Surgery as well as Cranial Base Surgery at the cradle of modern cranial base surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.  As an ablative head and neck surgeon, he specializes in the surgical treatment of both benign and malignant lesions of the head and neck from cranial base to thoracic inlet.  His basic science interests are in cancer stem cells and immunology with clinical research interests in informational access and patient outcomes.

As Co-director of the Center for Skull Base Surgery, he helps lead a team that specializes in minimally invasive treatment of pituitary tumors, craniopharyngiomas, meningiomas, sinonasal tumors, and orbital tumors.  The multidisciplinary team provides the full range of treatment options for skull base pathology including endoscopic surgery, open resection, and radiosurgery and proton beam radiotherapy.  As part of the head and neck cancer team in the Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, he specializes in ablative resection of cancers of the skin, oral cavity, oropharynx, maxilla, sinuses, ear, nose, larynx, pharynx, parotid and other salivary glands.  Having expertise in minimally invasive endoscopic techniques, sialoendoscopy, laser microsurgery as well as complex open resection, Dr. Lee approaches each patient and their disease with the surgery that is most appropriate for their situation.

Publications

Hu J, Mirshahidi S, Simental A, Lee SC, De Andrade Filho PA, Peterson NR, Duerksen-Hughes P, Yuan X. Cancer stem cell self-renewal as a therapeutic target in human oral cancer. Oncogene. 2019 Apr 1. PMID: 30936460.

Kwon D, Lee S. Invasive Thyroid Cancer. Myers, E. N., & Carrau, R. L. (3rd Ed 2017). Operative otolaryngology: Head and neck surgery. Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier.

Mirshahidi S, Simental A, Lee SC, De Andrade Filho PA, Peterson NR, Cao W, DeNecochea-Campion F, Yang H, Duerksen-Hughes P, Yuan X. Subpopulations of Cancer Stem Cells Found in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma. Experimental Cell Research 2017 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2017.12.017

Frank E, Park J, Simental A Jr, Vuong C, Lee S, Filho PA, Kwon D, Liu Y Six-Year Experience of Outpatient Total and Completion Thyroidectomy at a Single Academic Institution. Am Surg. 2017 Apr 1;83(4):381-384. PMID: 28424134

Han PS, Kim Y, Yoo TS, Lee S, Inman JC. Sialodochoplasty Stents: Cost Analysis and Outcomes. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016 Sep 15. pii: S0278-2391(16)30815-1

Park J, Frank E, Simental A Jr, Yang S, Vuong C, Lee S, Filho PA. Management of Completion and Total Thyroidectomy Patients Based on 1-Hour Postoperative Parathyroid Hormone. Am Surg. 2016 Oct;82(10):881-884.

Liu, YF, Vuong C, Walker PC, Peterson NR, Inman JC, Andrade Filho PA, Lee SC. Noninvasive Free Flap Monitoring Using Eulerian Video Magnification," Case Reports in Otolaryngology, vol. 2016, Article ID 9471696, 4 pages, 2016.

Kass JI, Lee SC, Abberbock S, Seethala RR, Duvvuri U. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the head and neck: Molecular analysis using CRTC-MAML FISH and survival comparison with paired conventional squamous cell carcinoma.Laryngosope 2015 Aug PMID 26255977.

Jie HB, Schuler P, Lee SC, Srivastava R, Argiris A, Ferrone S, Whiteside T, Ferris RL. CTLA-4+ regulatory T cells are increased in cetuximab treated head and neck cancer patients, suppress NK cell cytotoxicity and correlate with poor prognosis. Cancer Res. 2015 April. PMID 25832655

Hu J, Ta J, Deisch J, Lee S, Wareham R. Image-guided transoral resection of recurrent parapharyngeal space glial heterotopia. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2014 Feb;78(2):366-9. PMID: 24367936.

Lee SC, Chen H, Simental A. Hyperparathyroidism. In: Kountakis SE, Ed. Encyclopedia of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. Springer. 2013

Srivastava RM, Lee SC, Andrade Filho PA, Lord CA, Jie HB, Davidson HC, López-Albaitero A, Gibson SP, Gooding WE, Ferrone S, Ferris RL. Cetuximab-activated natural killer and dendritic cells collaborate to trigger tumor antigen-specific T-cell immunity in head and neck cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Apr: 19(7):1858-72.

Lim CM, Lee SC, Lopez-Albaitero A, Ferris RL. Immunology and Immunotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer. In: Gady H, Nathan CO, Day TA, Ed. Multidisciplinary Approach to Head and Neck Neoplasms. 2013.

Ta J, Lee SC. Cervical Lymphadenectomy. In: Meyers A, Ed. Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery. Emedicine. 2011.

Argiris A, Lee SC, Feinstein T, Thomas S, Branstetter BF 4th, Seethala R, Wang L, Gooding W, Grandis JR, Ferris RL. Serum biomarkers as potential predictors of antitumor activity of cetuximab-containing therapy for locally advanced head and neck cancer. Oral Oncol. 2011 47(10):961-6.

Ong YK, Solares, CA, Lee SC, Snyderman CH, Fernandez-Miranda, J, and Gardner P. Endoscopic nasopharyngectomy and its Role in Managing Locally Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. In Harvey RJ and Snyderman CH, Ed. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America 2011 44(5):1141-1154.

Snyderman CH, Ong YK, Lee SC, Gardner P. Pediatric Skull Base Surgery. In: Bluestone CD, Ed. Pediatric Otolaryngology. Sanders In press.

Dedhia RC, Smith KJ, Weissfeld JL, Saul MI, Lee SC, Myers EN, Johnson JT. Cost-Identification Analysis of Total Laryngectomy: An Itemized Approach to Hospital Costs. Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery 2011 144(2):220-4

Lee SC, Srivastava RM, López-Albaitero A, Ferrone S, Ferris RL. Natural killer (NK):dendritic cell (DC) cross talk induced by therapeutic monoclonal antibody triggers tumor antigen-specific T cell immunity. Immunol Res. 2011 Aug;50(2-3):248-54.

Lee SC, Ferris RL. Immunology of Head and Neck Cancer. In: Bernier J, Ed. Head and Neck Cancer: Multimodality Treatment. Springer 2010.

Lee SC, Johnson, JT. Salivary Gland Neoplasms. In: Meyers A, Ed. Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery. Emedicine. 2009.

Lopez-Albaitero A, Lee SC, Morgan S, Grandis JR, Gooding WE, Ferrone S, Ferris RL. Role of polymorphic Fc gamma receptor IIIa and EGFR expression level in cetuximab mediated, NK cell dependent in vitro cytotoxicity of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2009.

Lee SC, Lopez-Albaitero A, Ferris RL. Immunotherapy of Head and Neck Cancer using Tumor Antigen Specific Monoclonal Antibodies. Current Oncology Reports 2009 11(2) 156-162.

Lee SC, Senior BA. Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery. Clinical and Experimental Otolaryngology. 2008 1(2):53-62.

Lee SC, Shores CG, Weissler MC. Salvage surgery after failed primary concomitant chemoradiation. Current Opinion in Oto Head and Neck Surgery 2008 16:135-140.

Lee SC, Ebert CE, Fordham LA, Rose AS. Accuracy of plain films in the evaluation of batteries as ingested foreign bodies. International Journal of Pediatric Otolaryngology 2008 Oct; 72(10):1487-1491

Richey LM, Shores CG, George J, Lee SC, Couch ME, Sutton DK, Weissler MC. The effectiveness of salvage surgery after the failure of primary concomitant chemoradiation in head and neck cancer. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007 Jan;136(1):98-103

Lee SC. Anatomy of the Vestibular System. In: Meyers A, Ed. Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery. Emedicine. 2006.

Lee SC, Terris D. Photography. In: Meyers A, Ed. Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery. Emedicine. 2006.

Lee SC, Drake A. Pathology: Rhabdomyosarcoma. In: Meyers A, Ed. Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery. Emedicine. 2005.

Lee SC, Wang X, Strong DD, Linkhart TA. FGF-2 regulates IGF binding protein-5 gene transcription through the p38 MAP kinase pathway. Mol Biol Cell 2000 Dec 11:Abstract 164.

Lee KN, Lee SC, Jackson KW, Tae WC, Schartzott DG, McKee PA. Effects of phenylglyoxal-modified alpha2-antiplasmin on urokinase-induced fibrinolysis. Thromb Haemost 1998 Oct. 80:637-44.

Lee SC, Lee KN, Schwartzott DG, Jackson KW, Tae WC, McKee PA. Purification of human alpha2-antiplasmin with chicken IgY specific to its carboxy-terminal peptide. Prep Biochem Biotechnol 1997 Nov. 27:227-37.

Meetings

Fujimoto S, Raghavan R, Lee SC, De Los Reyes K. 29th Annual North American Skull Base Society Meeting 2019. Palliative surgical decompression in a patient with sinonasal NUT midline carcinoma for vision protection: a case report.

Crawley B, Cipta S, Lee SC. The Fall Voice. 2018. Flexible Zenker’s Diverticulotomy

Yang S, Park J, Frank E, Simental A, Vuong C, Lee SC, Andrade Filho P. American College of Surgeons Southern California 2016. Management of Completion and Total Thyroidectomy Patients Based on 1-hour Postoperative PTH.

Frank E, Park J, Simental A, Vuong C, Lee SC, Andrade Filho P, Kwon D, Liu Y. American College of Surgeons Southern California 2016. 6 Year Experience of Outpatient Total and Completion Thyroidectomy.

Simental A, Andrade Filho P, Lee SC, Mirshahidi S, Duerksen-Hughes P, Yuan X. American Head and Neck Society Annual Meeting 2015. Papillary thyroid cancer cells can proliferate through asymmetric division to self-renew and produce differentiated tumor cells.

Vuong C, Kwon D, Simental A, Kim C, Mohan S, Andrade Filho P, Perez M, Lee SC. American Head and Neck Society Annual Meeting 2015. Cost Effectiveness of Intraoperative Pathology in the Management of Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules.

Bernard S, Richardson C, Hamann C, Lee SC, Dinh V. Third Annual World Congress Ultrasond in Medical Education, October 2014 Head and Neck Ultrasound: A Multimodal Education Approach in the Predoctoral Setting.

Jie HB, Schuler P, Lee SC, Srivastava R, Argiris A, Ferrone S, Whiteside T, Ferris RL. American Association of Immunologists 2014. CTLA-4+ regulatory T cells are increased in cetuximab treated head and neck cancer patients, suppress NK cell cytotoxicity and correlate with poor prognosis.

Moon P, Nguyen K, Evelsizer A, Lee SC. APC 2014 A Closer Look at Patient Ethnic Background and Thyroid Cancer .

Kim PD, Tran K, Stewart IV C, Lee SC, Simental A. COSM 2013 Concordance Rates Of Head And Neck Tumor Clinical Staging Vs. Pathological Staging In A Tertiary Care Center: How Accurate Are We?

Lord CA, Srivastava RM, Lee SC, Andrade Filho PA, Gibson SP, Gooding WE, Ferrone S, Ferris RL. AACR 2012. Augmented induction of tumor antigen-specific CTL by cetuximab in head and neck cancer patients does not correlate with Fcg receptor IIIa genotype, but relies on NK:DC cross talk mediated by interferon-g and NKG2D

Conrad R, Sanberg L, Herrmann C, Perez M, Lee SC, Raghavan R. HUPO 11th Annual World Congress 2012. Proposal for a Quick and Simplified Approach to Proteomics-Based Tumor Biomarker Analysis

Lee SC, Ong YK, Gardner PA, Synderman CH. 8th International Conference on Head and Neck Cancer July 2012. Skull base ptosis after endoscopic anterior cranial fossa surgery.

Wolford B, Simental A, Kim PD, Stewart IV C, Lee SC. AAO Annual Meeting September 2011. Transoral Laser Resection of Tongue Base in the Work-up of Unknown Primary Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Kass JI, Lee SC, Lin Y, Seethala RR, Duvvuri U. COSM 2011 Outcomes of adenosquamous carcinoma of the head and neck: A matched pair comparison with conventional squamous cell carcinoma

Lee SC, Andrade PA, Szajnik ME, Mandapathil M, Ferrone S, Whiteside T, Ferris RL. AHNS Research Meeting 2010. The Role of Regulator T cells in Cetuximab Immunotherapy. Poster Presentation.

Lee SC, Andrade PA, Davidson HC, Lopez-Albaitero A, Srivastava R, der-Terossian H, Reddy V, Gibson SP, Gooding W, Ferrone S, Ferris RL. AHNS Research Meeting 2010. Cetuximab Promotes Dendritic Cell Maturation and Cross-Priming of EGFR-specific T cells in Head and Neck Cancer Patients. Oral Presentation

Smith K, Weissfeld J, Lee SC, Johnson JT. AAOHNS Annual Meeting 2010. Analysis of Hospital Costs for Total Laryngectomy. Oral Presentation.

Lee SC. World Congress on Endoscopic Surgery of the Brain, Skull Base and Spine. 2010. Moderator for Panel on Sinonasal Malignancies.

Lee SC, Duvvuri U, Kass J, Dacic S, Cieply K, Seethala RR. American Head and Neck Society (COSM 2010) Adenosquamous Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: A Clinicopathologic and Molecular Analysis of 20 Cases.

Lee SC. Dental Management of Patients with Oral Cavity Cancer 2010. White Lesions of the Oral Cavity.

Lee SC, Nance M, Rivera-Serrano C, Johnson JT, Duvvuri U. World Robotics Symposium 2010. Transoral Robotic Surgery: Volumetric Base of Tongue Reduction for Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

Lee SC, Karamousiz M, Gooding W, Argiris A, Ferris RL. American Head and Neck Society 2009. Using immune/inflammatory biomarkers to differentiate low and advanced stage squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

Andrade P, Lee SC, DeLeo A, Butterfield L, Whiteside TL, Argiris A, Ferris RL. American Society of Clinical Oncology 2009. Phase I adjuvant trial of multi-epitope p53 vaccine for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: preliminary report.

Ferris RL, Lee SC, Feinstein T, Grandis JR, Johnson R, Branstetter BF, Gooding W, Argiris A. American Society of Clinical Oncology 2009. Serum biomarkers as potential predictors of clinical outcome after cetuximab-based therapy in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carincoma of the head and neck.

Lee SC, Ferris RL. 12th Annual Meeting of the Translational Research Cancer Centers Consortium 2008. Cetuximab mediated immunotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Second Place.

Lee SC, Ebert CE, Fordham LA, Rose AS. American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology. 2007. Accuracy of plain films in the evaluation of batteries as ingested foreign bodies.

Lee SC. UNC Chapel Hill Grand Rounds 2007. Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.

Lee SC, Yin X, Shores CG, Hayes, DN. UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center Retreat. 2006. Cross platform validation of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumor subtypes found by expression profiling. Third Place.

Richey LM, Shores CG, George J, Lee SC, Couch ME, Sutton DK, Weissler MC. AAO-HNSF Annual Meeting. 2006. The effectiveness of salvage surgery after the failure of primary concomitant chemoradiation in head and neck cancer.

Lee SC, Yin X, Shores CG, Hayes, DN. American Association for Cancer Research. 2006. Cross platform validation of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumor subtypes found by expression profiling.

Lee SC, Wang XW, Strong DD, Linkhart TA Annual Postgraduate Convention. 2002. FGF-2 regulation of IGFBP-5 gene transcription. Third Place.

Lee SC, Wang XW, Strong DD, Linkhart TA 40th American Society for Cell Biology. 2000. FGF-2 regulates IGF binding protein-5 gene transcription through the p38 MAP kinase pathway

Lee SC, Wang XW, Strong DD, Linkhart TA. 15th Annual National MSTP meeting. 2000. FGF-2 regulates IGF binding protein-5 gene transcription through the p38 MAP kinase pathway

Invited Talks

Navigating a career as a physician scientist. Panelist. American Physician Scientist Association November 17, 2019

New theories of tumor biology.  Denpasar, Indonesia, 2019

Antibiotics and the microbiome. Denpasar, Indonesia, 2019

The hijacking of the mind.  Denpasar, Indonesia, 2019

Options for endoscopic skull base reconstruction. 16th Annual World Congress Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics, 2019.

Sinusitis. Management of the Neck Masses. The Dizzy Patient. Thyroid Nodules. Camp Mivoden Medical Dental Camp. 2018

Moderator, ENT and Plastic Surgery Section, American College of Surgeons Southern California Chapter, 2018.

Endoscopic skull base reconstruction. 15th Annual World Congress Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics, 2018.

Endoscopic craniofacial resection. Loma Linda Skull Base Surgery Workshop, 2015

Head and Neck Ultrasound. Loma Linda University Ultrafest, 2014

Subcranial approach to the anterior cranial fossa. North American Skull Base Society Pre-Meeting Workshop, 2014

Update on Sialoendoscopy: indications and techniques. Annual Postgraduate Conventions 2014, Loma Linda, CA, March 2014.

Sialoendoscopy: indications and techniques. Annual Postgraduate Conventions 2013, Loma Linda, CA, March 2013.

Endoscopic skull base surgery. 86th Annual Meeting of the Korean Society of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul, Korea, April 2012

New developments in endoscopic skull base surgery. Annual Postgraduate Convention 2011, Loma Linda, CA, March 2011.

Research Grants

iPSCs as Stem Cell Therapy for Neonatal Brain Ischemia. GRASP 2015

Tumorigenic and Metastatic Activity of Head and Neck Cancer Initiating Cells. GCAT 2015

Modulators of immune activation by anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in SCCHN. Triological Society Career Development Award. 2009

Analysis of IGFBP-5 gene function in normal human osteoblast by representational difference analysis. LLU seed grant. 1999.

Professional Memberships

Diplomate, American Board of Otolaryngology

American Academy of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery

North American Skull Base Society

The Triological Society

American Head and Neck Society

American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery