Loma Linda University

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Gerald Schultz, MD
Assoc Clin Prof, Ophthalmology
School of Medicine
Publications    Scholarly Journals--Published
  • Aldave, AJ, Sonmez, B, Bourla, N, Rayner, SA, Schultz, GR, Salem, AK and Yellore, VS. "Autosomal dominant cornea plana is not associated with pathogenic mutations in DCN, DSPG3, FOXC1, KERA, LUM, or PITX2. ." Ophthalmic Genetics 28. (2007): 57-67. ( 8/2007 )
    Purpose: To determine the genetic basis of autosomal dominant cornea plana (CNA1) through the performance of a genome-wide linkage analysis and screening of the decorin (DCN), dermatan sulfate proteoglycan 3 (DSPG3), forkhead box C1 (FOXC1), keratocan (KERA), lumican (LUM,) and paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2) genes in members of an affected multigenerational family. Methods: Cycloplegic refraction, slit lamp biomicroscopy, corneal pachymetry, and corneal topography were performed to determine each patient?s affected status. DNA was obtained from affected and unaffected subjects for the performance of a genome-wide linkage analysis as well as PCR amplification and sequencing of DCN, DSPG3, FOXC1, KERA, LUM, and PITX2. Results: Five affected and three unaffected individuals were examined and provided a peripheral blood sample for DNA isolation. All affected individuals demonstrated an average corneal dioptric power less than 39 D, as well as one or more of the following anomalies: high hyperopia, strabismus, microcornea, posterior embryotoxon, iridocorneal adhesions, iris atrophy, and pupillary irregularities. A genome-wide linkage analysis did not indicate or exclude linkage to the region on chromosome 12 to which CNA1 has been previously mapped, and did not provide a single or multipoint LOD score greater than 2.0 for any of the 400 microsatellite markers. Screening of DCN, DSPG3, FOXC1, KERA, LUM, and PITX2 revealed 12 previously described single nucleotide polymorphisms, 2 previously described duplications, and 1 previously described insertion. None of the mutations previously associated with autosomal recessive cornea plana (CNA2) were identified. Seven novel sequence variants were described, including 5 single nucleotide substitutions, 1 insertion and 1 deletion. None of the identified sequence variants demonstrated complete segregation with the affected phenotype in the pedigree. Conclusion: Although missense and nonsense mutations in KERA are associated with CNA2, we did not identify any of the previously described mutations or novel mutations that segregated with the disease phenotype in a family with CNA1. In addition, no pathogenic sequence variations were found in DCN, DSPG3, LUM, PITX2 and FOXC1, which have also been implicated in corneal and anterior segment dysgenesis.
  • Gerald R. Schultz MD. "Persistent Diplopia Following Retrobulbar Injections." Intraocular Implant & Refractive Society, India 1.3 (2004): 19-24. ( 8/2004 )
    Strabismus, which occurs following cataract surgery, has been associated with pre-operative retrobulbar and perbulbar injections. Damage to the recti muscles, resulting in persistent pain and fibrosis, has been implicated as the cause. The article reviews the current thoughts on the causes, treatments and methods of preventing the paresis.