Loma Linda University

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Andrew Hopper, MD
Professor, Pediatrics
School of Medicine
Publications    Scholarly Journals--Published
  • Morkos AA, Hopper AO, Deming DD, Yellon SM, Wycliffe N, Ashwal S, Sowers LC, Peverini RL, Angeles DM. "Elevated Total Peripheral Leukocyte Count May Identify Risk for Neurological Disability in Asphyxiated Term Neonates." J Perinatology 27.6 (2007): 365-370. ( 4/2007 )
  • Miao G, Ostrowski RP, Mace J, Hough J, Hopper A, Peverini R, Chinnock R, Zhang J, Hathout E. "Dynamic production of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in early tranplanted islets." American Journal Transplant 6.11 (2006): 2636-2643. ( 11/2006 )
  • Rabin CW, Hopper AO, Job L, Peverini RL, Clark SJ, Deming DD, Nelson JC, Vyhmeister NR. "Incidence of Low Free T4 values in Premature Infants as Determined by Direct Equilibrium Dialysis." Journal of Perinatology 01. (2004): 640-644. ( 1/2004 )
  • Kanady J A, Aruni A W, Ninnis J R, Hopper A O, Blood J D, . . . Blood A B. (2012). Nitrate reductase activity of bacteria in saliva of term and preterm infants. Nitric Oxide-Biology and Chemistry, 27(4), 193-200. ( 12/2012 - Present ) Link...
    The salivary glands of adults concentrate nitrate from plasma into saliva where it is converted to nitrite by bacterial nitrate reductases. Nitrite can play a beneficial role in adult gastrointestinal and cardiovascular physiology. When nitrite is swallowed, some of it is converted to nitric oxide (NO) in the stomach and may then exert protective effects in the gastrointestinal tract and throughout the body. It has yet to be determined either when newborn infants acquire oral nitrate reducing bacteria or what the effects of antimicrobial therapy or premature birth may be on the bacterial processing of nitrate to nitrite. We measured nitrate and nitrite levels in the saliva of adults and both preterm and term human infants in the early weeks of life. We also measured oral bacterial reductase activity in the saliva of both infants and adults, and characterized the species of nitrate reducing bacteria present. Oral bacterial conversion of nitrate to nitrite in infants was either undetectable or markedly lower than the conversion rates of adults. No measurable reductase activity was found in infants within the first two weeks of life, despite the presence of oral nitrate reducing bacteria such as Actinomyces odontolyticus, Veillonella atypica, and Rothia mucilaginosa. We conclude that relatively little nitrite reaches the infant gastrointestinal tract due to the lack of oral bacterial nitrate reductase activity. Given the importance of the nitrate-nitrite-NO axis in adults, the lack of oral nitrate-reducing bacteria in infants may be relevant to the vulnerability of newborns to hypoxic stress and gastrointestinal tract pathologies. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Solomon T, Ninnis J, Deming D, Merritt T A, & Hopper A. (2011). Use of propranolol for treatment of hemangiomas in PHACE syndrome. Journal of Perinatology, 31(11), 739-741. ( 11/2011 - Present ) Link...
    We report the case of a 29-week preterm infant with PHACE (posterior fossa malformations, hemangionas, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies) syndrome. PHACE syndrome is a neurocutaneous disorder with large facial segmental hemangionas associated with anomalies of the brain, eye, heart and aorta. The hemangiomas in our patient were problematic, distorting the airway and interfering with respirations to the point of requiring mechanical ventilation. Consultation with several different centers with medical expertize in treatment of congenital hemangiomas revealed different views on the best management strategy. In this infant, the hemangiomas progressed with failure to involute despite currently recommended therapy including corticosteroids and vincristine. Therefore, the infant was treated with propranolol and had significant regression of the hemangiomas. The use of propranolol for the treatment of infantile hemangiomas is reviewed. Journal of Perinatology (2011) 31, 739-741; doi:10.1038/jp.2011.28
  • Ibrahim Y I, Ninnis J R, Hopper A O, Deming D D, Zhang A X, . . . Blood A B. (2011). Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy Increases Blood Nitrite, Nitrate, and S-Nitrosohemoglobin Concentrations in Infants with Pulmonary Hypertension. J Pediatr, , . ( 9/2011 - Present ) Link...
    OBJECTIVE: To measure the circulating concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) adducts with NO bioactivity after inhaled NO (iNO) therapy in infants with pulmonary hypertension. STUDY DESIGN: In this single center study, 5 sequential blood samples were collected from infants with pulmonary hypertension before, during, and after therapy with iNO (n = 17). Samples were collected from a control group of hospitalized infants without pulmonary hypertension (n = 16) and from healthy adults for comparison (n = 12). RESULTS: After beginning iNO (20 ppm) whole blood nitrite levels increased approximately two-fold within 2 hours (P<.01). Whole blood nitrate levels increased to 4-fold higher than baseline during treatment with 20 ppm iNO (P<.01). S-nitrosohemoglobin increased measurably after beginning iNO (P<.01), whereas iron nitrosyl hemoglobin and total hemoglobin-bound NO-species compounds did not change. CONCLUSION: Treatment of pulmonary hypertensive infants with iNO results in increases in levels of nitrite, nitrate, and S-nitrosohemoglobin in circulating blood. We speculate that these compounds may be carriers of NO bioactivity throughout the body and account for peripheral effects of iNO in the brain, heart, and other organs.
  • Hutson S, Baerg J, Ramlogan S, Woelk A, Drake W, . . . Goff D. (2013). High Prevalence of Pulmonary Hypertension Complicates Care of Infants With Omphalocele. Circulation, 128(22), 2. ( 11/2013 - Present )
  • Jones J, Ninnis J R, Hopper A O, Ibrahim Y, Merritt T A, . . . Blood A B. (2013). Nitrite and nitrate concentrations and metabolism in breast milk, artificial milk, and parenteral nutrition of term and preterm infants. Nitric Oxide-Biology and Chemistry, 31, S28-S29. ( 4/2013 - Present ) Link...
  • Hutson S, Baerg J, Woelk J, Lavery A, Hopper A, & Goff D A. (2013). PULMONARY HYPERTENSION IN INFANTS WITH OMPHALOCELE. Journal of Investigative Medicine, 61(1), 120-120. ( 1/2013 - Present )
  • Adams K K, Goldstein M, Ninnis J, Hopper A, & Deming D. (2012). USE OF AN OXYGEN SATURATION HISTOGRAM INCREASES TIME INFANTS ARE WITHIN TARGET SATURATION RANGE. Journal of Investigative Medicine, 60(1), 160-161. ( 1/2012 - Present )
  • Kanady J, Ninnis J, Hopper A, Ibrahim Y, Merritt T A, Power G, & Blood A. (2011). Nitrite and nitrate concentrations and metabolism in breast milk, infant formula, and saliva of term and preterm infants. Nitric Oxide-Biology and Chemistry, 24, S20-S20. ( 5/2011 - Present ) Link...
  • Kanady J A, Hopper A O, Ninnis J R, Aruni W, Power G G, & Blood A B. (2011). BACTERIAL NITRATE REDUCTION IN SALIVA OF NEWBORN INFANTS. Journal of Investigative Medicine, 59(1), 170-171. ( 1/2011 - Present )
  • Hopper A, Schroeder H, Terry M, Merrill-Henry J, Power G, & Blood A. (2009). Production of nitric oxide from nitrite in the lung. Nitric Oxide-Biology and Chemistry, 20, S30-S30. ( 6/2009 - Present )
  • Ibrahim Y A, Ninnis J R, Hopper A O, Power G G, & Blood A B. (2009). EFFECT OF INHALED NITRIC OXIDE ON PLASMA NITRITE CONCENTRATIONS IN INFANTS WITH PERSISTENT PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. Journal of Investigative Medicine, 57(1), 128-128. ( 1/2009 - Present )
  • Kanady J, Ibrahim Y, Hopper A O, Ninnis J R, Power G G, & Blood A B. (2009). NITRITE CONCENTRATION IN SALIVA AND DIET OF TERM AND PRETERM INFANTS. Journal of Investigative Medicine, 57(1), 131-131. ( 1/2009 - Present )
  • Hopper A, Ninnis J, Mulla N, Deming D, Terry M, Moore P, & Peverini R. (2009). PERSISTENT PULMONARY HYPERTENSION IN VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS: A ROLE FOR INHALED NITRIC OXIDE?. Journal of Investigative Medicine, 57(1), 128-129. ( 1/2009 - Present )