Loma Linda University

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Denise Bellinger, PhD
Assoc Res Prof, Pathology and Human Anatomy
School of Medicine
Presentations    General Academic Presentation
  • Bellinger, DL. 2011. Sympathetic-Immune Modulation and Autoimmunity: Lessons Learned from Autoimmune Arthritis. NIDDK Workshop: The interface between the nervous and the immune system in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. Neuroscience Center, Room C, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD, June 15. ( 6/2011 )
  • Lorton D, Carter JL, Lubahn CL, Bellinger DL. 2007. Immune-to-neural signaling in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. 37th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. San Diego Convention Center, San Diego, CA, Nov. 3-7. ( 11/2007 - 9/2007 )
  Research Presentations -- International
  • Perez S, Kozic B, Molinaro C, Thyagarajan S, Ghamsary M, Lubahn C, Lorton D, Bellinger DL. 2011. Chronically Reducing Sympathetic Activity Protects Sympathetic Nerves and Alters β-Adrenergic Signaling in the Aging F344 Rat Spleen. 18th Annual Meeting of the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society, Chicago, IL, June 8-11. ( 6/2011 )
  • Dulcich MS, Hartman RE, Gifford P, Molinaro C, Luo X, Kroh J, Gridley DS, Bellinger DL. 2011. Aging and Stress Effects on Behavioral Outcomes and Tumor Growth in a Mouse Model of Prostate Cancer. 18th Annual Meeting of the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society, Chicago, IL,  June 8-11. ( 6/2011 )
  • Lorton D, Bellinger DL, Osredkar T, Schaller J, Lubahn C. 2011. Sympathetic signaling to splenocytes is altered in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA). 18th Annual Meeting of the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society. Chicago, IL, June 8-11. ( 6/2011 )
  • Lubahn C, Bellinger DL, Jacobson S, Byron D, Belden C, Sabbagh M, Osredkar T, Lorton D. 2010. Beta 2-Adrenergic Receptor Signaling is Dysregulated in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Elderly Fibromyalgia Patients. 40th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA, Nov. 13-17. ( 11/2010 )
  • Bellinger DL, Damjanovic AK, Molinaro C, Gridley DS, Carter J. 2010. Sympathetic modulation of prostate cancer cell growth. 40th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA, Nov. 13-17. ( 11/2010 )
    Adrenergic agents are prescribed for prostate cancer to facilitate urination by relaxing smooth muscle of the urethra, but it is not clear whether adrenergic therapy also affects prostate tumor growth. Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) could affect prostate tumor growth via dense innervation of the prostate gland. The purpose of this study was to (1) examine whether adrenergic agonists that selectively bind to β2- or α1- AR directly affect in vitro growth of the human prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP) and the RM-9 murine prostate cancer cell line (derived from C57Bl/6 mice), and (2) examine sympathetic innervation of host prostate and orthotopic RM-9 tumors in syngeneic C57Bl/6 mice. LNCaP and RM-9 cells were incubated for 6 or 24 hr with varying concentrations of a β2-AR (terbutaline) or an α1-AR agonist (phenylephrine) with or without a β-AR (propranolol) or an α1-AR antagonist (prazosin), respectively. Viability was assessed by MTS analysis and growth by cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry. RM-9 cells (5,000 cells) were orthotopically inoculated into the dorsolateral prostate gland of young male C57Bl/6 mice, killed 14 days later, and prostate tumors prepared for fluorescence histochemistry for localizing catecholamines or immunofluorescence for tyrosine hydroxylase. We report that phenylephrine or terbutaline increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner at 6 hr. Incubation with 100 nM terbutaline reduced the percentage on cells in the S and G2/M phase of the RM-9 cell cycle (the replicating phase) at 24 hr, which was blocked by propranolol. Incubation with 100 nM phenylephrine had no effect on the percentage of replicating RM-9 cells at 6 hr, while the addition of the antagonist reduced RM-9 cell replication at 24 hr, possibly by a nonreceptor-mediated mechanism. Incubation with 100 nM terbutaline or phenylephrine increased the percentage on cells in the S and G2/M phase of the LNCaP cell cycle at 24 hr, which was blocked in both treatments by the addition of the appropriate antagonist. RM-9 cells preincubated with terbutaline for 24 hr, significantly increased basal levels of cAMP production compared with controls, which was blocked by the addition of the antagonist, indicating β -AR activation in vitro. Histochemical staining revealed noradrenergic nerves in close proximity to RM-9 tumor cells and TH-positive neuroendocrine cells within the tumor. These data are consistent with previous reports of AR expression on human and rat prostate cell lines, and support SNS and neuroendocrine cell modulation of RM-9 cell growth and proliferation in vivo.
  • Carter J, Bellinger DL, Lubahn C, Gifford P, Lorton D. 2010. Immune-to-neural signaling in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis 40th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA, Nov. 13-17. ( 11/2010 )
    Products of immune cells can communicate with the CNS affecting neural activity, neurotransmitter synthesis and release, and behavior. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), longterm immune activation may contribute to psychological disorders that occur with higher frequency than the general population. Few studies have examined pathophysiological changes in the CNS with RA or animal models for RA. In this study, we examined the effect of immunization with complete Freund''''s adjuvant (CFA) to induce arthritis in male Lewis rats on neural activity in the brain. Rats were immunized with 0.03 mg of heat-killed Mycobacterium butyricum suspended in 100 ml of sterile endotoxin-free mineral oil or 0.9% sterile, endotoxin-free saline. Vehicle-treated and untreated animals served as controls. On day 28 post-immunization, animals were deeply anesthetized and perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde plus picric acid. Brains were dissected, prepared for immunocytochemistry and regions of the hippocampus, CA1, CA2, CA3 and the dentate DG were examined for: (1) c-fos, a neuronal activation marker or (2) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) the rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of norepinephrine. In addition, the hippocampi from non-perfused brains were microdissected and analyzed for the presence of norepinephrine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We report here an increase in c-Fos activation in pyramidal cells of the hippocampus and an increase in the density of noradrenergic fibers in all four areas of the hippocampus of arthritic rats compared with nonarthritic controls. Furthermore, the concentration of norepinephrine in the hippocampi from arthritic animals was significantly higher than in nonarthritic controls (p<0.05). Although, the significance of AP-1 transcription factors, like c-Fos protein, remains elusive, AP-1 is thought to activate various neurotransmitter systems, such as serotonin, opioid peptides, catecholamines, acetylcholine and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). These findings suggest widespread and prolonged activation of the hippocampus after induction of arthritis that may be contributory to disease-related depression, altered pain perception, and/or stress-related
  • Dulcich MS, Hartman RE, Gifford P, Molinaro C, Luo X, Kroh J, Gridley DS, Bellinger DL. Prostate Cancer: Aging and stress in a mouse model.40th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA, Nov. 13-17. ( 11/2010 )
    Approximately 30,000 men die from prostate cancer every year. This type of cancer effects middle-aged and elderly men. RM-9 cells have been developed to create a mouse model to study this disease and find more effective therapies. Empirical observations, as early as the 1950s, demonstrate the deleterious effects of stress on various types of cancer. In this study, RM-9 cells were implanted in the prostate of 2-month- and 18-month-old C57Bl/6 wildtype mice, which were then restraint-stressed to measure the effects this would have on tumor development and response. Mice also underwent a battery of behavioral tests to assess their stress response. We saw stress-mediated effects on the disease progression. There was an effect of age and stress on tumor growth. Tumor growth was greater in old mice than in young, and restraint stress enhanced tumor growth regardless of age, but this effect was greater in old mice. Restraint stress affected behavior and several immune parameters. Behavior tests demonstrate: a) older non-stressed mice were less active overall compared with older stressed and younger mice; b) older mice showed a greater tendency for learned helplessness (tail-suspension test) compared with younger mice; c) stressed older mice demonstrated greater anxiety-like behavior (elevated zero maze) compared with the other groups; and d) stressed mice never regained their pre-surgical weight while non-stressed mice did. Age and stress affected circulating peripheral blood and splenic leukocyte concentrations, suggesting a possible contributory mechanism for stress-mediated changes in tumor growth.
  • Lorton D, Lubahn C, Osredkar T, Carter J, Der T, Bellinger DL. 2008. Disease-induced changes in sympathetic to immune signaling in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA). 38th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Washington, DC, Nov 15-19. (Nov. 17th) ( 11/2008 )
  • Bellinger DL, Molinaro C, Perez S, Lubahn C, Lorton D. 2008.  Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulation of T-lymphocyte proliferation in aging F344 rats. Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Washington, DC, Nov 15-19. ( 11/2008 )
  • Perez SD, Bellinger DL, Kozic B, Molinaro C, Carter J, Thyagarajan S. 2008. Strain-related sympathetic basal activity response to stimulation by imidazoline-1 receptors in the rostral ventrolateral medulla in middle-aged rats.  Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Washington, DC, Nov 15-19. ( 11/2008 )
  • Lee JW, Morton KR, Walters J, Bellinger DL, Butler TL, Wilson C, Walsh E, Ellison CG, McKenzie MM, Fraser GE. 2008. The Biopsychosocial Religion and Health Study (BRHS): Overview and Methods. Seelbach Hilton, Louisville, KY, October 19. ( 10/2008 )
  • Morton KR, Lee JW, Ellison CG, Hewett JA, Greene S, Bellinger DL, Fraser GE. 2008. Giving vs. receiving religious support by marital, racial, and gender status. Society for the Scientific Study of Religion. Symposium title: The Religion and Health Connection: An Examination of Biopsychosocial Mechanisms in Seventh-day Adventists. Seelbach Hilton, Louisville, KY, October 19. ( 10/2008 )
  • Lorton D, Lubahn C, Osredkar T, Carter J Bellinger, DL. 2008. Disease-induced changes in sympathetic to immune signaling in adjuvant induced arthritis. 15th Annual Meeting of the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society, Monona Terrace Convention Center, Madison, WI, May 28-31. ( 5/2008 )
  • Morton KR, Lee JW, Bellinger DL, Fraser G, Walters J, DeSilva K. 2008. Psychosocial Risk Exposure in Whites and African Americans: Religious Coping and Health.Association for Psychological Science 20th Annual Convention. Chicago, IL May 23. ( 5/2008 )
  • Morton KR, Lee JW, Bellinger DL, Fraser G, Walters J, DeSilva K. 2008. Psychosocial Risk Exposure in Whites and African Americans: Religious Coping and Health. Association for Psychological Science 20th Annual Convention. Chicago, IL May 23. ( 5/2008 )
  • Bellinger, DL. 2008. Symposium: Dynamic Innervation of Lymphoid Tissue: Mechanisms and Impact. Title of Talk: Sympathetic innervation across the lifespan: Implications for immune function. 15th Annual Meeting of the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society, Monona Terrace Convention Center, Madison, WI, May 28-31. , May 28-31.  ( 5/2008 )
  • Bellinger DL, Vyas S, Molinaro C. 2007. Loss of splenic nerve growth factor in old F344 rats is partially restored by treatment with rilmenidine, an imidazoline receptor I1 agonist. 37th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. San Diego, CA, Nov. 3-7. ( 11/2007 )
    Previous research in our laboratory showed an age-related decline in noradrenergic (NA) sympathetic innervation of spleens from male Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Since, nerve growth factor (NGF) plays an important role in determining the density of sympathetic innervation of target tissues throughout life, dysregulation of NGF expression in splenic target cells might explain the loss of sympathetic nerves. Moreover, chronically heightened sympathetic activity can also destroy nerve terminals by increased oxidative stress resulting from the breakdown of norepinephrine. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether these mechanisms are responsible for the age-related loss of splenic sympathetic nerves.  Western blot analysis of NGF protein expression was evaluated in splenic lysates from untreated young (3 month) and old (18 month) male F344 rats, and from 15-month-old rats treated with vehicle or rilmenidine [0.5 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg, b.i.d. (i.p.)] for 3 months to downregulation of sympathetic activity. Our studies showed a 40% decrease in NGF protein levels in spleens from old rats compared with young adults. Noteworthy, rilmenidine induced a dose-dependent effect on NGF protein levels: administration of low and high doses of rilmenidine increased splenic NGF levels by 60 and 50%, respectively, compared to vehicle group (sterile physiological saline).  Splenic NGF levels in the low-dose rilmenidine-treated group (500 µg/kg) were not different from 3-month-old F344 rats. Collectively, these findings support our hypothesis that changes in NGF protein expression might explain, at least in part, the age-related decline in sympathetic innervation of the spleen. Furthermore our date suggests that age-related changes in sympathetic activity in the spleen during middle age may precipitate the loss of NGF protein in spleens from old F344 male rats. This research is supported by NIH grant NS44032.  
  • Perez SD, Bellinger DL, Millar B, Molinaro C, Vyas S, Carter JL, Thyagarajan S. 2007. Chronic effects of aging and stimulation of central imidazoline-1 receptors on splenic sympathetic activity and β-AR-stimulated cAMP production in middle-aged F344 rats. 37th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. San Diego Convention Center, San Diego, CA, Nov. 3-7.   ( 11/2007 )
  • Lorton D, Lubahn CL, Carter J, Wood C, Estus C, Bellinger DL. 2006. Increased noradrenergic innervation of the cervical dorsal horn in adjuvant-induced arthritis: further enhancement by treatment with adrenergic drugs. 36th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA, Oct. 14-18. ( 10/2007 )
  • Bellinger DL. "Autonomic and Neuroendocrine Cross-Talk with the Immune System: Relevance to Early Life Experiences, Chronic Disease, and Aging." 46th Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology. Charlotte, NC ( 3/2007 )
  • Lorton D, Lubahn CL, Carter J, Wood C, Estus C, Bellinger DL. 2006. Increased noradrenergic innervation of the cervical dorsal horn in adjuvant-induced arthritis: further enhancement by treatment with adrenergic drugs. 36th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA Oct. 14-18. ( 10/2006 )
  • Millar B, Perez SD, Flowers R, Evelsizer S, Alberto S, Carter JL, ThyagaRajan S, Molinaro C, Wood C, Bellinger DL. 2006. Aging alters sympathetic response at two time points following immunization with KLH in Fischer 344 rats. 13th Annual Meeting of the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society. LOEWS-Miami Beach Hotel, Miami, FL, May 31-June 3. ( 5/2006 - 6/2006 )
  • Carter JL, Amanda. Damjanovic AK, Molinaro CA, Vyas S, Gridley DS, ThyagaRajan S, Bellinger DL. 2006. Sympathetic modulation of mammalian cancer in vitro. 13th Annual Meeting of the Psychoneuroimmunology. LOEWS-Miami Beach Hotel, Miami, FL. May 31-June 3. ( 5/2006 - 6/2006 )
  • Vyas S, Molinaro CA, Perez SD, Millar B, Carter J, Wood C, Bellinger DL. 2006. Effects of aging and the anti-hypertensive drug, rilmenidine, on nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in the spleen of male F344 rats. 13th Annual Meeting of the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society. LOEWS-Miami Beach Hotel, Miami FL, May 31-June 3. Published in Brain Behav Immun 20(3) Suppl 1, p. 74. ( 5/2006 - 6/2006 )
  • Perez SD, Molinaro CA, Vyas S, Millar B, Carter J, Wood C, Thyagarajan S, Bellinger DL. 2006. Chronically reducing sympathetic activity in the spleen during middle age does not reverse the age-related increase in β-AR-stimulated cAMP production in splenocytes. 13th Annual Meeting of the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society, LOEWS-Miami Beach Hotel, Miami FL, May 31-June 3. Published in Brain Behav Immun 20(3), Suppl. 1, p. 57. ( 5/2006 - 6/2006 )
  • Bassett K, Molinaro CA, Millar AB, Flowers S, Perez SD, Karsten AH, Bellinger DL. 2005. Age-Related Changes in Splenic Neurotrophin Content: A Possible Cause for Declining Sympathetic Innervation in Old Rats. The 33rd Annual Western Student Medical Research Forum. Oral Presentation, Carmel, CA, February 2-5. ( 2/2005 - 9/2005 )
  • Carter J, Lubahn C, Lorton D, Flowers S, Ruff N, Bellinger DL. 2005. Anatomic Patterns of c-Fos Immunostaining in Lewis Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis. 12th Annual Meeting of the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society. Brown Palace Hotel, Denver, CO, June 8-11. ( 6/2005 )
  • Damjanovic AK, Carter J, Gridley DS, ThyagaRajan S, Molinaro CA, Bellinger DL. 2005.Sympathetic Modulation of Mammalian Prostate Cancer. 12th Annual Meeting of the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society. Brown Palace Hotel, Denver, CO, June 8-11. ( 6/2005 )
  • Carter J, Bellinger DL. 2005. Immune-to-Neural Signaling in Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis. 12th Annual Meeting of the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society. Brown Palace Hotel, Denver, CO, June 8-11. ( 6/2005 )
  • Millar B, Silva D, ThyagaRajan S, Molinaro C, Karsten AH, Flowers SR, Perez SD, Bellinger DL. 2005. Immunization with KLH differentially affects splenic sympathetic activity in two strains of young and old rats. 12th Annual Meeting of the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society. Brown Palace Hotel, Denver, CO, June 8-11. ( 6/2005 )
  • Perez SD, Molinaro C, Silva D, ThyagaRajan S, Millar B, Flowers S, Bellinger DL. 2005. Strain differences in basal sympathetic activity: Effects of aging and stimulation of the central imidazoline-1 receptors in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. 12th Annual Meeting of the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society. Brown Palace Hotel, Denver, CO, June 8-11. ( 6/2005 )
  • Lubahn CL, Schaller JA, Bellinger DL, Lorton D. 2005. Adrenergic drugs targeting alpha1-, alpha2-, and beta2-adrenergic receptors, alone and in combination is effective in treating adjuvant-induced arthritis in the Lewis rat. 12th Annual Meeting of the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society. Brown Palace Hotel, Denver, CO, June 8-11. ( 6/2005 )
  • Bellinger DL, Millar B, Flowers S Damjanovic AK, Nance DM, ThyagaRajan S. 2005. Estrogen and immunity: neuromodulation by splenic sympathetic noradrenergic nerve fibers in rats. 12thAnnual Meeting of the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society, Brown Palace Hotel, Denver, CO, June 8-11. ( 6/2005 )
  • Lorton D, Lubahn C, Schaller J, Carter J, Woods C, Bellinger DL. 2005. Initial safety and efficacy study demonstrates promise for the use of beta2-adrenergic agonists and alpha-adrenergic antagonists as joint sparing treatments for adjuvant arthritis (AA). 12th Annual Meeting of the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society. Palace Hotel, Denver, CO, June 8-11. ( 6/2005 )
  Research Presentations -- National
  • Carter, JL, Lubahn C, Lorton D, Flowers S, Ruff N, Bellinger DL. 2007. Anatomic patterns of c-Fos immunostaining in Lewis rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Arizona Alzheimer''''s Research Consortium Annual Conference. Hyatt Regency, Phoenix, Arizona, May 19.   ( 5/2007 )
  • Carter JL, Lubahn C, Flowers S, Ruff N, Osredkar T, Bellinger DL Lorton D. 2007. Parallel Activation of neuronal c-Fos and TNF-alpha in the hippocampus after chronic system inflammation.  Arizona Alzheimer''''s Research Consortium Annual Conference. Hyatt Regency, Phoenix, Arizona, May 19. ( 5/2007 )
  • Bellinger DL. "Stress - Friend or Foe of the Immune System: Relevance to Vaccination." LLU Healthy People Symposium: Pandemic Disease. Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA ( 3/2007 )
  • Gross, J, Vyas S, Molinaro CA, Bellinger DL. 2007. Effects of ageing and the anti-hypertensive drug rilmenidine on nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in the spleen of male F344 rats. 34th Western Student Medical Research Forum, Carmel, CA, February 2-5, Oral presentation, Feb. 3. ( 2/2007 )
  • Denise L. Bellinger. "Neuro-immune communication in rheumatoid arthritis." American Association of Immunologists (AAI). Boston, MA ( 5/2006 )
  • Denise L. Bellinger. "Sympathetic Modulation of Immunity in Aging." NIA Endocrine-Immune Workshop. William F. Bolger Center, Potomac, MD ( 4/2005 )
  • Denise Bellinger. "Sympathetic Modulation of the Immune System in Aging and." 7th Annual LLU Research Symposium. Wong Kerlee International Conference Center, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA ( 9/2004 )
  Research Presentations -- Regional
  • Evelsizer S, Carter JL, Flowers SR, Ruff N, Molinaro C, Lorton D, Lubahn C, Bellinger DL. 2005 Immune-to-neural signaling in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. 33rd Annual Western Student Medical Research Forum, Carmel, CA, Poster Presentation, Feb. 2-5. ( 2/2005 )
  • Bassett K, Molinaro CA, Millar AB, Flowers S, Perez SD, Karsten AH, Bellinger DL. 2005. Age-Related Changes in Splenic Neurotrophin Content: A Possible Cause for Declining Sympathetic Innervation in Old Rats. The 33rd Annual Western Student Medical Research Forum. Oral Presentation, Carmel, CA, February. ( 2/2005 )
    Previous research in our laboratory demonstrated an age-related decline of noradrenergic (NA) sympathetic innervation in the spleens of male Fisher 344 (F344) rats, evident by 17 months of age that was not observed in 24-month-old male Brown Norway (BN) rats. Since, the growth and maintenance of mature sympathetic neurons is dependent on the synthesis of neurotrophic factors by a variety of cell types in target organs, we hypothesized that altered neurotrophic concentrations in spleens from aged F344 rats, but not in BN rats, may account for the strain-dependent differences. To test this hypothesis, total and free nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) concentrations in spleens from young (3-month-old) and old male F344 (24-month-old) and BN (27-month-old) rats were determined by ELISA and correlated with splenic norepinephrine concentrations. Data were expressed as means + SEM, with subsequent Student’s t-test performed to determine age-related difference (p<0.05). In young adult F344 and BN rats the mean splenic concentrations of NT-3 and NGF were comparable to levels reported by other investigators. There was no effect of age on total splenic NGF concentrations (unbound + receptor bound) in either rat strain (p>0.05).    Unbound NGF concentrations in spleens from old F344 rats, and the ratio of free/bound NGF were significantly lower (p<0.05) compared with young F344 controls. There was an age-related trend toward lower free NGF content in spleens from BN rats, but this was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Conversely, the concentrations of free NT-3 in spleens from old F344 and BN rats were higher compared with young rats (p<0.05). Age-associated changes in splenic neurotrophin content correlated with changes in splenic norepinephrine content. Collectively, these findings indicate altered neurotrophin expression in the aged spleen that may contribute to the previously reported strain-related differences in the density of sympathetic nerves in lymphoid compartments of the spleen with advancing age.  
  Research Presentations -- Local/Campus
  • Zahra C, Reese B, Perez SD, Millar B, Molinaro C, Bellinger DL. 2008. Immune modulation of the sympathetic nervous system in aging. 8th Annual Health Disparities Research Symposium, Wong Kerlee International Conference Center, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, Aug. 25. ( 8/2008 )
  • de Leon G, Serrano M, Lopez J, Marshak HH, Bellinger DL, Montgomery S, de Leon M. 2008. Gratitude intervention to promotes compliance with healthy behaviors among overweight Hispanics concern with type 2 diabetes- A clinical randomize control study. 8th Annual Health Disparities Research Symposium, Wong Kerlee International Conference Center, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, Aug. 25. ( 8/2008 )
  • de Leon G, Marshak-Hopp H, Serrano M, Lopez J, Montgomery S, de Leon M, Bellinger DL. 2008. Randomized gratitude intervention to promote compliance with healthy behaviors among overweight and obese Hispanics concern with diabetes. 8th Annual Health Disparities Research Symposium, Wong Kerlee International Conference Center, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, Aug. 25. ( 8/2008 )
  • Lee JW, Morton KR, Walters J, Bellinger DL, Butler TL, Wilson C, Walsh E, Ellison CG, McKenzie MM, Fraser GE. 2008. The Biopsychosocial Religion and Health Study (BRHS) AKA Adventist Religion & Health Study. BRHS Monthly Presentation, LLU, June 2. ( 6/2008 )
  • Garcia P, Millar B, Silva D, Molinaro C, ThyagaRajan S, Bellinger DL. 2006. Sympathetic innervation of spleens from aging male Brown Norway (BN) rats: a longitudinal study. 6th Annual Health Disparities Research Symposium, Wong Kerlee International Conference Center, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, Aug, 2006. ( 8/2006 - 9/2006 )
  • Garcia P, Millar B, Silva D, Molinaro C, ThyagaRajan S, Bellinger DL. 2006. Sympathetic innervation of spleens from aging male Brown Norway (BN) rats: A longitudinal study. 6th LLU-NIH Initiative for Maximizing Student Development (IMSD) Annual Research Symposium, Aug. 2006. ( 8/2006 )
  • Carter JL, Amanda. Damjanovic AK, Molinaro CA, Vyas S, Gridley DS, ThyagaRajan S, Bellinger DL. 2006. Sympathetic modulation of mammalian cancer in vitro. 73rd Annual Postgraduate Convention, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, March 4-7, Poster Presentation, March 6. 1st Place Award Winner for Poster Presentation. ( 4/2006 )
  • Vyas S, Molinaro CA, Perez SD, Millar B, Carter JL, Wood C, Bellinger DL. 2006. Effects of aging and the antihypertensive drug rilmenidine on nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in the spleen of male F344 rats. 74th Annual Postgraduate Convention, Loma Linda University, March 3-6, Poster Presentation, March 5. ( 3/2006 )
  • Carter JL, Flowers S, Lorton D, Lubahn C, Bellinger DL. 2005. Anatomic Patterns of c-Fos Immunostaining in Lewis Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis. 8th Annual Research Symposium, Loma Linda, CA, September 2-3, Poster presentation. ( 9/2005 )
  • Millar B, Silva D, ThyagaRajan S, Molinaro C, Karsten A, Flowers S, Perez S, Lubahn C, Lorton D, Bellinger DL. 2005. Immunization with KLH differentially affects splenic sympathetic activity in two strains of young and old rats. 73rd Annual Postgraduate Convention, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, March 4-7, Poster Presentation, March 6. ( 3/2005 )
  • Flowers S, Bellinger DL. 2004. Immune-to-neural signaling in rats with adjuvant induced arthritis. Loma Linda University 7th Annual Research Symposium, Loma Linda, CA, September 2-3, ( 9/2004 )
  • Karsten A, Bellinger DL. 2004. Sympathetic modulation of mammalian prostate cancer. Loma Linda University 7th Annual Research Symposium, Loma Linda, CA, September 2-3. ( 9/2004 )
  • ThyagaRajan S, Bellinger DL. 2004. Estrogen-induced inhibition of sympathetic noradrenergic (NA) neuronal activity in the spleens of male and female rats. Loma Linda University 7th Annual Research Symposium, Loma Linda, CA, September 2-3. ( 9/2004 )
  • Perez SD, Bellinger DL. 2004. Age effects on T-lymphocyte function in short- and long-lived rats with age-related differences in sympathetic innervation of the spleen. Loma Linda University 7th Annual Research Symposium, Loma Linda, CA, September 2-3. ( 9/2004 )
  • Clarke C, Karsten AH, Gridley DS, ThyagaRajan S, Molinaro C, Bellinger DL. 2004. Sympathetic Modulation of Mammalian Prostate Cancer. Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students (ABRCMS). Aug. 2004. ( 8/2004 )
  • Ruff N, Carter J, Lubahn C, Lorton D, Bellinger DL. 2004. Anatomic Patterns of c-Fos Immunostaining in Lewis Rats with Adjuvant Arthritis. (Student Slide Presentation) American Federation for Medical Research Western Regional Conference, Carmel, CA, Feb. 19.  ( 2/2004 )
  Poster Presentation
  • Carter JL, Lubahn C, Flowers S, Ruff N, Osredkar T, Bellinger DL, Lorton D. 2008. Parallel activation of neuronal c-Fos and TNF-alpha in the hippocampus after chronic system inflammation. Arizona Alzheimer''s Research Consortium Annual Conference. The Renaissance Hotel - Glendale, Arizona, May 30. ( 5/2008 )
  • Bellinger DL, Vyas S, Molinaro C. 2007. Loss of splenic nerve growth factor in old F344 rats is partially restored by treatment with rilmenidine, an imidazoline receptor I1 agonist.  Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience Abstr. ( 10/2007 )
  • Lorton D, Lubahn C, Carter C, Wood J, Estus C, Bellinger DL. 2006. Adjuvant-induced arthritis induces an up-regulation of descending noradrenergic innervation to the cervical dorsal horn, an effect augmented by treatment with adrenergic drugs. 36th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA Oct. 14-18. ( 10/2006 )