Loma Linda University

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Ella Haddad, DrPH
Associate Professor, School of Public Health
School of Public Health
Publications    Scholarly Journals--Published
  • Tonstad S, Malik N, Haddad E. A high-fibre bean-rich diet versus a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity. J Hum Nutr Diet. Suppl 2014;2:109-16.

    ( 0/2014 )
  • Jaceldo-Siegl K, Haddad E, Oda K, Fraser GE, Sabaté J. Tree nuts are inversely associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity: the Adventist health study-2. PLoS One 9(1):e85133, 2014.

    ( 0/2014 )
  • Haddad EH, Gaban-Chong N, Oda K, Sabaté J. Effect of a walnut meal on postprandial oxidative stress and antioxidants in healthy individuals. Nutr J 12014;3:4.

    ( 0/2014 )
  • West AA, Shih Y, Wang W, Oda K, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Sabaté J, Haddad E, Rajaram S, Caudill MA, Burns-Whitmore B. Egg n-3 fatty acid composition modulates biomarkers of choline metabolism in free-living lacto-ovo-vegetarian women of reproductive age. J Acad Nutr Diet 2014;S2212-2672.

    ( 0/2014 )
  • Wien M, Haddad E, Oda K, Sabaté J. A randomized 3x3 crossover study to evaluate the effect of Hass avocado intake on post-ingestive satiety, glucose and insulin levels, and subsequent energy intake in overweight adults. Nutr J 20`3;12:155. ( 10/2013 )
  • Dyett PA, Sabaté J, Haddad E, Rajaram S, Shavlik D. Vegan lifestyle behaviors: an exploration of congruence with health-related beliefs and assessed health indices. Appetite 2013;67:119-24


    ( 0/2013 )
  • Chiang YL, Haddad E, Rajaram S, Shavlik D, Sabaté J. The effect of dietary walnuts compared to fatty fish on eicosanoids, cytokines, soluble endothelieal adhesion molectules and lymphocyte subsets: a randomized, controlled crossover trial. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2012;87:111-7. ( 0/2012 )
  • Peterson JM, Montgomery S, Haddad E, Kearney L, Tonstad S. Effect of consumption of dried California Mission Figs on Lipid Concentrations. Ann Nutr Metab 2011;58:232-238. ( 0/2011 )
  • Paalani M, Lee JW, Haddad E, Tonstad S. Determinants of inflammatory markers in a bi-ethnic population. Ethn Dis 2011:21:142-149. ( 0/2011 )
  • Singh PN, Haddad E, Tonstad S, Fraser GE. Does excess body fat maintained after the seventh decade decrease life expectancy? J Am Geriatr Soc 2011;59:1003-1011. ( 0/2011 )
  • Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fan J, Sabate J, Knutsen SF, Haddad E, Beeson WL, Herring RP, Butler TL, Bennett H, Fraser GE. Race-specific validation of food intake obtained from a comprehensive FFQ: The Adventist Health Study 2. Public Health Nutr 2011;6:1-10. ( 0/2011 )
  • Hudthagosol C, Haddad EH, McCarthy K, Wang P, Oda K, Sabate J. Pecans acutely increase plasma postprandial antioxidant capacity and catechins and decrease LDL oxidation in Humans. J Nutr 2011;141:56-62. ( 0/2011 )
  • Burns-Whitmore BL, Haddad EH, Sabate J, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Tanzman J, Rajaram S. Effect of n-3 fatty acid enriched eggs and organic eggs on serum lutein in free-living lacto-ovo vegetarians. Eur J Clin Nutr 2011;64:1331-1337. ( 0/2011 )
  • Jaceldo-Siegl K, Knutsen SF, Sabate J, Beeson WL, Chan J, Herring RP, Butler TL, Haddad E, Bennett H, Montgomery S, Sharma SS, OdA K, Fraser GE. Validation of nutrient intake using a food-frequency questionnaire and repeated 24h recalls in Black and White subjects of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) Public Health Nutr 2010;13:812-819. ( 0/2010 )
  • Torabian S, Haddad E, Cordero-MacIntyre Z, Tanzman J, Fernandez ML, Sabate J. Long term walnut supplementation without dietary advice induces favorable serum lipid changes in free-living individuals. Eur J Clin Nutr 2010;64:274-279. ( 0/2010 )
  • Jacobs DR, Haddad EH, Lanou AJ, Messina MJ. Food, plant food, and vegetarian diets in the US dietary guidelines: conclusions of an expert panel. Am J Clin Nutr 2009, 89:1549S-1552S. ( 4/2009 )
      We summarize conclusions drawn from a panel discussion at the ‘‘Fifth International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition’’ about the roles of and emphasis on food, plant food, and vegetarianism in current and future US dietary guidelines. The most general recommendation of the panel was that future dietary guidelines, following the lead of the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, should emphasize food-based recommendations and thinking to the full extent that evidence allows. Although nutrient-based thinking and Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) may help ensure an adequate diet in the sense that deficiency states are avoided, the emphasis on DRIs may not capture many important nutritional issues and may inhibit a focus on foods. More generally, in the context of the conference on vegetarian nutrition, this report focuses on the history and structure of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, on various plant food–oriented recommendations that are supported by literature evidence, and on mechanisms for participating in the process of forming dietary guidelines. Among recommendations that likely would improve health and the environment, some are oriented toward increased plant food consumption and some toward vegetarianism. The literature on health effects of individual foods and whole lifestyle diets is insufficient and justifies a call for future food-oriented research, including expanding the evidence base for plant-based and vegetarian diets. The Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee’s role should be carried forward to creation of a publicly accessible icon (eg, the current pyramid) and related materials to ensure that the science base is fully translated for the public.
  • Rajaram S, Haddad EH, Mejia A, Sabaté J. Walnuts and fatty fish influence different serum lipid fractions in normal to mildly hyperlipidemic individuals: a randomized controlled study. Am J clin Nutr 2009, 89:1657S-1663S. ( 4/2009 )
    Background: Increased consumption of n23 (omega-3) fatty acids decreases the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). Objective: The objective was to determine whether walnuts (plant n23 fatty acid) and fatty fish (marine n23 fatty acid) have similar effects on serum lipid markers at intakes recommended for primary prevention of CHD. Design: In a randomized crossover feeding trial, 25 normal to mildly hyperlipidemic adults consumed 3 isoenergetic diets (’30% total fat and,10% saturated fat) for 4wk each: a control diet (no nuts or fish), a walnut diet (42.5 g walnuts/10.1 mJ), or a fish diet (113 g salmon, twice/wk). Fasting blood was drawn at baseline and at the end of each diet period and analyzed for serum lipids. Results: Serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations in adults who followed the walnut diet (4.87 6 0.18 and 2.77 6 0.15 mmol/L, respectively) were lower than in those who followed the control diet (5.14 6 0.18 and 3.06 6 0.15 mmol/L, respectively) and those who followed the fish diet (5.33 6 0.18 and 3.2 6 0.15 mmol/L, respectively; P,0.0001). The fish diet resulted in decreased serum triglyceride and increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations (1.0 6 0.11 and 1.23 6 0.05 mmol/L, respectively) compared with the control diet (1.12 6 0.11 and 1.19 6 0.05 mmol/L, respectively) and the walnut diet (1.11 6 0.11 mmol/L, P , 0.05, and 1.18 6 0.05 mmol/L, P , 0.001, respectively). The ratios of total cholesterol: HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol:HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B:apolipoprotein A-I were lower (P , 0.05) in those who followed the walnut diet compared with those who followed the control and fish diets. Conclusion: Including walnuts and fatty fish in a healthy diet lowered serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, respectively, which affects CHD risk favorably.
  • Torabian S, Haddad E, Rajaram S, Banta J, Sabaté J. Acute effects of nut consumption on plasma total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation. J Hum Nutr Diet 2009, 22:64-71. ( 2/2009 )
    BACKGROUND: Nuts have been shown to have beneficial effects on human health due to the healthy fat content; however, the effect of antioxidants (i.e. polyphenols) in nuts have not been fully investigated. The present study aimed to assess the immediate effect of a polyphenol-rich meal (75% of energy from nuts: walnuts or almonds) and a polyphenol-free meal on plasma polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Thirteen subjects participated in a randomized, crossover, intervention study. After an overnight fast, walnuts, almonds or a control meal in the form of smoothies were consumed by study subjects. Each subject participated on three occasions, 1 week apart, consuming one of the smoothies each time. Blood samples were obtained at fasting and then at intervals up to 3.5 h after consumption of the smoothies. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in plasma polyphenol concentration following both nut meals, with peak concentrations being achieved at 90 min, and with a walnut meal having a more sustained higher concentration than an almond meal. The plasma total antioxidant capacity reached its highest point at 150 min postconsumption of the nut meals, and was higher after the almond compared to walnut meal. A gradual significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the susceptibility of plasma to lipid peroxidation was observed 90 min after ingestion of the nut meals. No changes were observed following consumption of control meal. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of both nuts increased plasma polyphenol concentrations, increased the total antioxidant capacity and reduced plasma lipid peroxidation.
  • Segovia-Siapco G, Singh P, Haddad E, Sabaté J. Relative validity of a food frequency questionnaite used to assess food intake during a dietary intervention study. Nutr Cancer 2008, 60:603-611. ( 7/2008 )
    To develop a cost-effective alternative for evaluating dietary intake in large-scale intervention trials of cancer and cardiovascular disease outcomes, we designed and validated a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We collected 6 to 8 of the 24-hr dietary recalls from 87 adults (ages 30-72 yr) who were randomly assigned to a walnut-supplemented diet or a control diet in a 6-mo dietary intervention trial. Relative validity of a 171-item FFQ in assessing intake of selected foods and the prescribed intervention (intake > or =25 g/day or intake < 2 g of walnuts) was determined using 24-h dietary recalls as the reference. De-attenuated correlations between FFQ and dietary recalls were .82 for walnuts, .80 for fruits, .79 for grains, .77 for vegetables, .63 for water, .44 for sweets, and .36 for dairy/eggs. High within-person variation did not allow de-attenuation for the remaining foods, but uncorrected correlations were high (> .7) for the beverage variables. The FFQ correctly classified 86 out of 87 subjects in the 2 prescribed intervention groups. The FFQ can provide an accurate measure of a food-based intervention (i.e., walnut supplementation) in a trial setting and can also accurately estimate a number of other food groups consumed during the trial.
  • Butler TL, Fraser GE, Beeson WL, Knutsen SF, Herring RP, Chan J, Sabaté J, Montgomery S, Haddad E, Preston-Martin S, Bennett H, Jaceldo-Siegl K. Cohort profile: The Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2). Int J Epidemiol. 2008, 37:260-5 ( 4/2008 )
  • Chan J, Knutsen SF, Sabate J, Haddad E, Yan R, Fraser GE. Feasibility of running clinics to collect biological specimens in a nationwide chohort -- Adventist Health Study-2.  Ann Epidemiol. 2007 Jun;17(6):454-7 ( 3/2007 )
    PURPOSE: Collecting biologic and questionnaire data allows analyses that can include both genetic/biomarker and behavioral factors. Therefore, the feasibility of collecting biological specimens from a nationally dispersed cohort (Adventist Health Study-2) was tested. METHODS: We selected 2130 subjects from California, Washington, Texas, and Louisiana to simulate a widely scattered cohort. Clinics were held at local church halls. Nonclinic attendees were invited to mail in their blood samples. The remaining nonparticipants were offered a home visit by a venipuncturist. RESULTS: Sixty-four percent of nonblack and 38.4% of black invitees attended the clinics. Another 11.3% of nonblack and 5.9% of black subjects from a subsample mailed in their blood samples. A venipuncturist visit collected samples from another 5.3% of nonblack subjects, but hurricanes disrupted this method among blacks. This experience suggests that we could collect biological samples from 81.2% and at least 44.3% of the nonblack and black subjects, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated the feasibility of collecting biological specimens from black as well as nonblack subjects, with an efficient, cost-effective system, and limited personpower, overcoming many of the complexities imposed by scattered subjects, diversity of culture, as well as cumbersome and varied state legislation governing clinics and clinic personnel.
  • Haddad E, Jambazian P, Karunia M, Tanzman J, Sabate. "A pecan-enriched diet increases gamma-tocopherol/cholesterol and decreases thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in plasma of adults." Nutrition Research 26. (2006): 397-402. ( 1/2006 )
  • Jambazian PR, Haddad E, Rajaram S, Tanzman J, Sabate J. "Almonds in the Diet Simultaneously Improve Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations and reduce plasma lipids.." Journal of American Dietetic Association 105. (2005): 449-545.

    ( 1/2005 )

    The objective of this study was to assess the dose-response effect of almond intake on plasma and red blood cell tocopherol concentrations in healthy adults enrolled in a randomized, crossover feeding trial. Participants were 16 healthy men and women, aged 41 ± 13 years. After a 2-week run-in period, participants were fed three diets for 4 weeks each: a control diet, a low-almond diet, and a high-almond diet, in which almonds contributed 0%, 10%, and 20% of total energy, respectively. Changes in blood tocopherol levels were assayed by high pressure liquid chromatography. Incorporating almonds into the diet helped meet the revised Recommended Dietary Allowance of 15 mg/day alpha-tocopherol concentrations. A significant dose-response effect was observed between percent energy in the diet from almonds and plasma ratio of alpha-tocopherol to total cholesterol.

  • Sabate J, Cordero-MacIntyre Z, Siapco G, Torabian S, Haddad E. "Does regular walnut consumption lead to weight gain?." Br J Nutr 94. (2005): 859-864. ( 1/2005 )
  • Haddad EH, Tanzman JS. What do vegetarians in the United States eat? Am J Clin Nutr 2003, 78:626S-632S.

    ( 9/2003 )
  Books and Chapters
  • Haddad EH (2011). Health effects of a pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] nut-rich diet. In: V. R. Preedy, R. R. Watson, V. B. Patel (Editors), Nuts & Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention (1st ed.)(pp 891-898). London, Burlington, San Diego: Academic Press in an imprint of Elsevier.  ( 0/2011 )