Loma Linda University

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Jung Wei Chen, DDS, MS, PhD
Program Director, Advanced Education, Pediatric Dentistry
School of Dentistry
Professor, Pediatric Dentistry
School of Dentistry
Member, Faculty of Graduate Studies
Publications    Scholarly Journals--Published
  • J-W. Chen, V.L. Leggitt.  Pulp Treatment for Young first Permanent Molars: To Treat or Extract?  Endodontic Topics 2012:23:24-40.   ( 0/2012 )
  • J-W. Chen, M. Jorden. Materials for Primary Tooth Pulp Treatment: The Present and The Future.  Endodontic Topics 2012:23:41-49. ( 0/2012 )
  • C-X. Sun, N. Wall, N. Angelov, C. Ririe, J-W. Chen, D. Boskovic, J. Henkin.  Changes in mRNA Expression of Adenosine Receptors in Human Chronic Periodontitis.  The Chinese Journal of Dental Research. 2011;14(2):113-120 ( 0/2011 )
  • P. Roe, J.Kan, K.Rungcharassaeng, J. Lozada, A. Kleinman, C.Goodacre, J-W. Chen.  Immediate Loading of Unsplinted Implants in the Anterior Mandible for Overdentures:  A case series. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2010:25(5):1028-35 PMID 20862419 ( 0/2010 )
  • J. Moseley, J-W Chen, F. Traficante, R. Grabowsky.  Comparison of Fluoride Concentations in Commonly Consumed Ready-to-eat Infant Foods.  Pediatr Dent 2010;32(7):389-93. ( 0/2010 )
  • B. Katheria, C. Kau, R.Tate, J-W. Chen, J. English, J. Bouquot.  Effectiveness of Impacted and Supernumerary Tooth Diagnosis from Traditional Radiography Versus Cone Beam Computed Tomography.  Pediatric Dentistry 2010;32(4):389-394 ( 0/2010 )
  • DS. Reznik, AH. Jeske, J-W. Chen, J. English.  Comparative Efficacy of Two Topical Anesthetics for The Placement of Orthodontic Temporary Anchorage Devices. Anesthesia Progress 2009;56:81-85. American Dental Society of Anesthesiology. ( 0/2010 )
  • C. Siew, S. Strock, H. Ristic, P. Kang, H-N. Chou, J-W. Chen, J..Frantsve-Hawley, D. Meyer. Assessing a Potential Risk Factor for Enamel Fluorosis:  A preliminary evaluation of fluoride content in infant formulas.  J Am Dent Assoc 2009;140(10):1228-36  PMID 19797552 ( 0/2009 )
  • AE. Levine, RD. Bebermeyer, J-W. Chen, D. Davis, C. Harty.  Development of a Dental Information Technology Course:  An Interdisciplinary Approach. J Dent Edu, 2008. J. Dent Educ. 2008;72(9):1067-1076. ( 0/2008 )
  • M. Gupta, J-W. Chen,JO. Ontiveros. Veneer Retention of Pre-veneered Primary Stainless Steel Crowns after Crimping.  J Dent Child. 2008;75(1):44-47. ( 0/2008 )
  • Paravina R, Majkic G, Stalker JR, Kiat-amnuay S, Chen J-W.  Development of a Model Shade Guide for Primary Teeth.  European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry. 2008:9(2)74-78.   ( 0/2008 )
  • AH. Jeske, JG. Giovannitti , KA. Peters, J-W. Chen, MP. Ryan.  Review and Update of Enteral Conscious Sedation and Emergency Procedures for Texas Dental Practitioners. Texas Dent J May 2007;124(5):468-478. ( 5/2007 )
  • CF. Ezzat, C. Chavarria, JF. Teichgraeber, J-W. Chen, RG. Stratmann, J. Gateno, JJ. Xia.  Pre-Surgical Nasoalveolar Molding (PNAM) Therapy for the Treatment of Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate:  A Preliminary Study.  Cleft Palate Craniofac J.  2007;44(1):8-12. ( 0/2007 )
  • Kim JB, Paravina R,Chen J-W. In-Vivo Evaluation of Color of Primary Teeth.  J Ped Dent.2007;29:383-6. ( 0/2007 )
  • Cheng Y-F, Chen J-W, Lin S-J, Lu H-K.  Is Coronally Positioned Flap Procedure Adjunct with Enamel Matrix Derivative or Root Conditioning a Relevant Predictor for Achieving Root Coverage?  A Systemic Review. Journal of Periodontal Research. (1)2-11,2007. (Online Journal)    ( 0/2007 )
  • J-W. Chen, J. Ziang.  Comparing Text-Based and Graphic User Interfaces for Novice and Expert Users.  AMIA 2007 Annua l Symposium proceeding. (ID AMIA-0560-S2007) ( 0/2007 )
  • M. Milano, JY. Lee, K. Donavan, J-W. Chen.  A Cross-Sectional Study of Medication Related Factors and Caries Experience in Asthmatic Children.  J Pediatr Dentistry 2006;28:5. ( 0/2006 )
  • J-W. Chen, SV. Seybold, H. Yazdi.  Assessment of the Effects of 2 Sedation Regimens on Cardiopulmonary Parameters in Pediatric Dental Patients:  A Retrospective Study.  J Pediatr Dent 2006;28:350-356. ( 0/2006 )
  • C. Chavarria, J-W. Chen, JF. Teichgraeber.  Use of Pre-Surgical Nasal Alveolar Molding Appliance in Treating Cleft Lip and Palate Patients.  Texas Dental Journal; Oct 2004;976-981. ( 10/2004 )
  • MIH Lin, CM. Flaitz, AJ. Moretti, SV. Seybold, J-W. Chen.  Evaluation of Halitosis in Children and Mothers.  Pediatr Dent 2003;25(6):553-58. ( 0/2003 )
  • J-W. Chen, CM. Flaitz, B. Wullbrandt, Sexton.  Oral Lesion Prevalence in HIV-Infected Romanian Children.  Pediatr Dent 2003;25:479-484. ( 0/2003 )
  • J-W. Chen, MH. Hobdell, K. Dunn, KA. Johnson, J. Zhang.  Teledentistry and Its Use in Dental Education.  JADA 2003;134(3):342-6. ( 0/2003 )
  • Michea J, Chen J-W, Xing Y, Johnson K, Flaitz CM: “Oral Pathology Report System: Improving and Existing Database System”. J Americ Med Info Assoc, Proceeding 2002. ( 0/2002 )
  • Marghalani A A, Omar S, & Chen J W. (2014). Clinical and radiographic success of mineral trioxide aggregate compared with formocresol as a pulpotomy treatment in primary molars: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Dent Assoc, 145(7), 714-21. ( 7/2014 - Present ) Link...
    BACKGROUND: The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the long-term clinical and radiographic success of using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and formocresol (FC) as a pulp-dressing material in pulpotomy treatment in primary molars. TYPES OF STUDIES REVIEWED: The authors searched MEDLINE, Thomson Reuters Web of Science and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published from Jan. 1, 1990, to May 9, 2013. For an RCT to be included, the authors required that the primary molars treated with a pulpotomy procedure must have received stainless steel crowns as a final restoration and that rubber dam isolation was used during treatment; that the pulp must have been vital as determined clinically by means of hemorrhage control with a cotton pellet; and that the RCT must have included a follow-up period of at least two years. For each included RCT, two authors assessed the risk of bias independently. RESULTS: The authors identified 20 trials and included five of them. A total of 377 primary molars were treated. The authors judged that none of the included RCTs had a low risk of bias. They noted no significant differences in clinical success (relative risk [RR] = 1.01; 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 0.98-1.05) and radiographic success (RR = 1.09; 95 percent CI, 0.97-1.21) for primary molars treated with MTA versus those treated with FC. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: On the basis of the limited evidence, pulpotomy procedures performed in primary molars involving the use of MTA or FC showed comparable clinical success rates.
  • McCormack Laura, Chen Jung-Wei, Trapp Larry, & Job Allen. (2014). A Comparison of Sedation-related Events for Two Multiagent Oral Sedation Regimens in Pediatric Dental Patients. Pediatr Dent, 36(4), 302-308. ( 7/2014 - Present )
    Purpose: This study compared the incidence of adverse sedation-related events occurring with two different multiagent oral sedation regimens in pediatric dental patients. Methods: Forty healthy patients (three to six years old), received either a sedation regimen of chloral hydrate, meperidine, and hydroxyzine with nitrous oxide (CH/M/H/N2O; N=19) or a regimen of midazolam, meperidine, and hydroxyzine with nitrous oxide (MZ/M/H/N2O; N=21). The two treating dentists answered a questionnaire regarding the perioperative period. Parents received two phone interviews at eight and 24 hours after sedation. Statistical analysis included chi-square, Pearson correlation coefficient, and t-test (P<.05). Results: Children sedated with MZ/M/H/N2O showed a significant increase in hyperactivity during dental treatment, slurring/difficulty speaking, and difficulty walking postoperatively within eight hours after discharge. Children sedated with CH/M/H/N2O showed a significant increase in frequency of sleeping, talking less than normal after arriving home, and an increased need for postoperative pain medication. Conclusions: Different oral sedation regimens produce different adverse sedation-related events. The provider of pediatric oral sedation should select a sedative regimen with an adverse sedation-related profile that he/she believes is optimal for the patient being treated. Parents should be counseled as to possible postsedation effects anticipated based on the sedative regimen administered.
  • Omar Samah, Chen Jung-Wei, Nelson Bonnie, Okumura Wesley, & Zhang Wu. (2014). Fluoride concentration in commonly consumed infant juices. Journal of dentistry for children (Chicago, Ill.), 81(1), 20-6. ( 0/2014 - Present )
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to measure the fluoride concentration in the most commonly consumed, commercially available infant fruit juices and to determine if a significant difference existed among various juice flavors and brands. METHODS: Ninety samples of different flavors from three infant juice manufacturing companies were analyzed using the Taves microdiffusion method. The fluoride content in one serving juice container was calculated and compared to the recommended optimal daily fluoride intake. RESULTS: Fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 1.81 ppm (mean=0.75+0.45 ppm) for all samples. A statistically significant difference in fluoride concentration among different manufacturers (P<.001) was found. Gerber juices contained higher fluoride amounts (mean=1.1+0.22 ppm) than Beechnut juices (mean=0.43+0.42 ppm) and Earth's Best juices (mean=0.34+0.13 ppm). CONCLUSION: Fluoride was found in all tested infant juice samples, and concentrations varied among manufacturers and flavors assessed. Fluoride in all tested samples was below the recommended optimal daily intake. When taking other fluoride sources into consideration, infants six months old and younger who consume three times the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommended amounts of juice per day may be at risk of developing fluorosis.
  • Chen J W, Fletcher B, & Roggenkamp C L. (2013). Experimental Initial Partial Polymerization Method for Fuji II Placement Evaluated for Micro leakage With/Without Fuji Coat. Oper Dent, 38(5), 528-538. ( 9/2013 - Present ) Link...
    Purpose: This laboratory study evaluated an experimental 1-second initial partial polymerization (IPP) technique using Fuji II LC vs the manufacturer's standard placement (control), both with and without Fuji Coat, relative to microleakage. Methods: Class V restorative preparations were placed on the buccal and lingual aspects of 30 permanent, caries-free and restorationfree, third molar teeth. Fuji II LC restorations were placed either following manufacturerspecified guidelines or IPP for 1 second prior to contouring and full light curing. Half of the restorations were placed using the IPP experimental technique and half of the teeth were finished using Fuji Coat LC. Following thermocycling, specimens were sectioned and dye penetration was measured. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis (p<0.05). Results: Mean microleakage results: experimental/varnish (0.08 +/- 0.15 mm), control/varnish (0.17 +/- 0.35 mm), experimental/nonvarnish (0.33 +/- 0.33 mm), and controUnonvarnish (0.58 +/- 0.47 mm) Univariate analysis of variance demonstrated significantly less microleakage for the experimental technique (p<0.001), use of finishing varnish (p<0.001), and the combination of experimentaUvarnish (p=0.013). Conclusions: The initial partial polymerization technique of Fuji II LC placement significantly reduces microleakage. Fuji Coat LC results in further diminished microleakage.
  • Gutenberg L L, Chen J W, & Trapp L. (2013). Methemoglobin levels in generally anesthetized pediatric dental patients receiving prilocaine versus lidocaine. Anesth Prog, 60(3), 99-108. ( 0/2013 - Present ) Link...
    The purpose of this study was to measure and compare peak methemoglobin levels and times to peak methemoglobin levels following the use of prilocaine and lidocaine in precooperative children undergoing comprehensive dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia. Ninety children, 3-6 years of age, undergoing dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia were enrolled and randomly assigned into 3 equal groups: group 1, 4% prilocaine plain, 5 mg/kg; group 2, 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine, 2.5 mg/kg; and group 3, no local anesthetic. Subjects in groups 1 and 2 were administered local anesthetic prior to restorative dental treatment. Methemoglobin levels (SpMET) were measured and recorded throughout the procedure using a Masimo Radical-7 Pulse Co-Oximeter (Masimo Corporation, Irvine, Calif, RDS-1 with SET software with methemoglobin interface). Data were analyzed using chi-square, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Pearson correlation (significance of P < .05). Group 1 had a significantly higher mean peak SpMET level at 3.55% than groups 2 and 3 at 1.63 and 1.60%, respectively. The mean time to peak SpMET was significantly shorter for group 3 at 29.50 minutes than that of group 1 at 62.73 and group 2 at 57.50 minutes. Prilocaine, at 5 mg/kg in pediatric dental patients, resulted in significantly higher peak SpMET levels than lidocaine and no local anesthetic. In comparison to no local anesthetic, the administration of prilocaine and lidocaine caused peak SpMET levels to occur significantly later in the procedure.
  • Santana R R, Lozada J, Kleinman A, Al-Ardah A, Herford A, & Chen J W. (2012). Accuracy of Cone Beam Computerized Tomography and a Three-Dimensional Stereolithographic Model in Identifying the Anterior Loop of the Mental Nerve: A Study on Cadavers. Journal of Oral Implantology, 38(6), 668-676. ( 12/2012 - Present ) Link...
    The objective of this ex vivo cadaver study was to determine the accuracy of cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) and a 3-dimensional stereolithographic (STL) model in identifying and measuring the anterior loop length (ANLL) of the mental nerve. A total of 12 cadavers (24 mental nerve plexus) were used for this study. Standardized CBCT scans of each mandible were obtained both with and without radiographic contrast tracer injected into the mental nerve plexus, and STL models of the two acquired CBCT images were made. The ANLL were measured using CBCT, STL model, and anatomy. The measurements obtained from the CBCT images and STL models were then analyzed and compared with the direct anatomic measurements. A paired sample t test was used, and P values less than .05 were considered statistically significant. The mean difference between CBCT and anatomic measurement was 0.04 mm and was not statistically significant (P = .332), whereas the mean difference between STL models and anatomic measurement was 0.4 mm and was statistically significant (P = .042). There was also a statistical significant difference between CBCT and the STL model (P = .048) with the mean difference of 0.35 mm. Therefore, CBCT is an accurate and reliable method in determining and measuring the ANLL but the STL model over- or underestimated the ANLL by as much as 1.51 mm and 1.83 mm, respectively.
  • Garbacea A, Lozada J L, Church C A, Al-Ardah A J, Seiberling K A, Naylor W P, & Chen J W. (2012). The Incidence of Maxillary Sinus Membrane Perforation During Endoscopically Assessed Crestal Sinus Floor Elevation: A Pilot Study. Journal of Oral Implantology, 38(4), 345-360. ( 8/2012 - Present ) Link...
    Transcrestal sinus membrane elevation is a surgical procedure performed to increase the bone volume in the maxillary sinus cavity. Because of visual limitations, the potential for maxillary sinus membrane perforations may be greater than with the lateral approach technique. The aim of this study was to macroscopically investigate ex vivo the occurrence of sinus membrane perforation during surgery using 3 transcrestal sinus floor elevation methods. Twenty fresh human cadaver heads, with 40 intact sinuses, were used for simultaneous sinus membrane elevation, placement of graft material, and dental implants. Real-time sinus endoscopy, periapical digital radiographs, and cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) images were subsequently used to evaluate the outcome of each surgical procedure. Perforation rates for each of the 3 techniques were then compared using a significance level of P < .05. No statistically significant differences in the perforation rate (P = .79) were found among the 3 surgical techniques. Although the sinus endoscope noted a higher frequency of perforations at the time of implant placement as compared with instrumentation or graft insertion, the difference was not statistically significant (P = .04). The CBCT readings were judged to be more accurate for identifying evidence of sinus perforations than the periapical radiographs when compared with the direct visualization with the endoscope. This pilot study demonstrated that a sinus membrane perforation can occur at any time during the sinus lift procedure, independent of the surgical method used.
  • Sun C X, Wall N R, Angelov N, Ririe C, Chen J W, Boskovic D S, & Henkin J M. (2011). Changes in mRNA expression of adenosine receptors in human chronic periodontitis. Chin J Dent Res, 14(2), 113-20. ( 0/2011 - Present )
    OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the aetiology of periodontitis, this study focused on the adenosine receptor (AR) expression profiles (A1AR, A2AAR, A2BAR and A3AR) in periodontal diseased tissues. METHODS: Adenosine receptor gene expression levels in human gingiva from 15 patients with healthy gingival tissues (control group) and 15 patients who exhibited severe chronic periodontitis (test group) were measured using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: The mRNA expression pattern changed in human chronic periodontitis: the A1AR decreased 20%, A2AAR increased 2.5-fold, A2BAR increased 3.7-fold and A3AR decreased 70% as compared with that of healthy gingiva. CONCLUSION: Inflammation of the gingival tissue is associated with (1) an unchanged expression of A1AR, (2) an increased expression of A2AAR and A2BAR, and (3) a decreased expression of A3AR. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the change in the expression patterns can be used to diagnose/predict periodontitis. This finding indicates that the adenosine receptor expression profile is changed in periodontitis with the potential for future clinical application.
  • Moseley-Stevens J, Chen J W, Traficante F R, & Grabowsky R L. (2010). Comparison of Fluoride Concentrations in Commonly Consumed Ready-to-eat Infant Foods. Pediatric Dentistry, 32(7), 513-517. ( 11/2010 - Present )
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure the fluoride concentrations in ready-to-eat infant food, and to determine if significant differences exist among flavors and brands. Methods: One hundred fifty samples of 5 infant food flavors from an organic infant food manufacturer and the largest infant food manufacturer were compared using the Taves microdiffusion method. Total fluoride ingestion per serving was calculated based on average amounts consumed and container size of individual products. Results: Fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 0.60 ppm (mean=0.170+/-0.725 [SD] ppm) for all samples, with both the highest and lowest fluoride concentrations found in processed banana infant food (Gerber, mean=0320+/-0.167 ppm; Earth's Best, mean=0.030+/-0.013 ppm). Significant differences were noted when comparing the 2 infant food manufacturers for all flavors. Conclusions: The fluoride concentrations in ready-to-eat infant food varied among the 5 flavors tested. All infant foods tested were found to provide less fluoride than the Institute of Medicine tolerable upper daily intake. No trends in fluoride concentrations for different flavors or brands were noted. Fluoride in infant foods should be considered when determining total fluoride intake. (Pediatr Dent 2010;32:513-7) Received June 24, 2009 / Lost Revision September 78, 2009 / Accepted September 20, 2009
  • Roe P, Kan J Y K, Rungcharassaeng K, Lozada J L, Kleinman A S, Goodacre C J, & Chen J W. (2010). Immediate Loading of Unsplinted Implants in the Anterior Mandible for Overdentures: A Case Series. International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, 25(5), 1028-1035. ( 9/2010 - Present )
    Purpose: This case series evaluated the implant success rate and peri-implant tissue response of immediately loaded unsplinted implants retaining a mandibular overdenture. Materials and Methods: Eight completely edentulous patients (five men, three women) with a mean age of 69.1 years were included in the study. All participants received new maxillary and mandibular complete dentures prior to implant placement. Two 4.0- x 13-mm threaded implants with a fluoride-modified microrough titanium surface were placed mesial to the mandibular canine position bilaterally. Individual stud attachments were connected and torqued to 25 Ncm and the overdenture was immediately attached. The patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically at implant placement and at 3, 6, and 12 months after implant placement. The data were analyzed using the paired-samples t test and the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test at a significance level of alpha = .05. Results: At 12 months, all implants remained osseointegrated and showed an overall mean marginal bone change of -0.36 +/- 0.29 mm and a mean Periotest value of -6.94 +/- 0.73. The modified Plaque Index scores indicated improvements in oral hygiene over time. Surgical complications involved two episodes of implant rotational instability. Prosthetic complications were attributed to abutment loosening, the patients' inability to insert the prosthesis correctly, and soft tissue shrinkage. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that favorable implant success rates and peri-implant tissue responses can be achieved with mandibular overdentures retained with two immediately loaded unsplinted threaded implants with a fluoride-modified microrough titanium surface. INT J ORAL MAXILLOFAC IMPLANTS 2010;25:1028-1035
  • Katheria B C, Kau C H, Tate R, Chen J W, English J, & Bouquot J. (2010). Effectiveness of Impacted and Supernumerary Tooth Diagnosis from Traditional Radiography Versus Cone Beam Computed Tomography. Pediatric Dentistry, 32(4), 304-309. ( 7/2010 - Present )
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is more effective than traditional radiography (TR) in diagnosing pediatric dental clinical cases involving impacted and supernumerary teeth. Methods: Surveys were given to 10 pediatric dental faculty and 10 pediatric dental residents after viewing 8 clinical cases in either CBCT or TR in which the patient presented with pathology (impaction or supernumerary) in the anterior maxilla. The surveys asked for pathology diagnosis, location, and identification of root resorption, as well as questions about the usefulness of the radiographic mode in treatment planning. Results: A statistically significant difference in CBCT vs. TR viewed cases was found with CBCT statistically better (P<0.05) for pathology location, determining root resorption, usefulness, adequacy in treatment planning, and was the overall recommended mode. More faculty were able to correctly identify the pathology location (P=0.034), while more residents believed they could determine presence of root resorption P=0.029). For impacted versus supernumerary cases, more pathology was correctly located when viewed in CBCT mode (P<0.05). No statistical significance in diagnosing the presence of pathology for all cases was found. Conclusions: CBCT and TR were effective in the initial diagnosis of pathology in the cases presented. CBCT, however, provides more information on the location of pathology, the presence of root resorption, and treatment planning. The pediatric dental community can benefit from the amount of additional information provided by CBCT. The benefits of CBCT imaging must be weighed against the radiation risk to the pediatric patient and the complexity of the pathology. (Pediatr Dent 2010;32:304-9) Received January 29, 2009 vertical bar Last Revision June 15, 2009 vertical bar Revision Accepted June 15, 2009
  • Siew C, Strock S, Ristic H, Kang P, Chou H N, . . . Meyer D M. (2009). Assessing a potential risk factor for enamel fluorosis A preliminary evaluation of fluoride content in infant formulas. Journal of the American Dental Association, 140(10), 1228-1236. ( 10/2009 - Present )
    Background. The authors conducted a study to determine concentrations of fluoride in infant formulas, and to estimate fluoride intake in infants consuming predominantly formula. The authors compared estimated fluoride ingestion with the tolerable upper limit and adequate intake level for fluoride recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Methods. The authors analyzed fluoride concentrations of powdered and liquid formula concentrates and ready-to-feed formulas. They estimated the total fluoride ingested by infants by considering the fluoride content measured in both the infant formula and various concentrations of fluoridated water. They based consumption volumes on published recommendations. The authors compared estimates for fluoride ingestion with the upper tolerable limit and adequate intake level, which they calculated by using published infant growth charts. Results. Fluoride concentrations of the different formulas were low and, if reconstituted with low-fluoride water, would not result in ingestion of fluoride at levels exceeding the IOM's upper tolerable limit. Some infants aged between birth and 6 months who consume powdered and liquid concentrate formulas reconstituted with water containing 1.0 part per million fluoride likely will exceed the upper tolerable limit of fluoride. Conclusions. When powdered or liquid concentrate infant formulas are the primary source of nutrition, some infants are likely to exceed the recommended fluoride upper limit if the formula is reconstituted with water containing 1.0 ppm fluoride. On the other hand, when the fluoride concentration in water used to reconstitute infant formulas is below 0.4 ppm, it is likely that infants between 6 and 12 months of age will be exposed to fluoride at levels below IOM's recommended adequate intake level.
  Books and Chapters
  • Essence of Life; 2007 Chan (Chinese Zen) 2005 ( 1/2005 - 1/2009 )