Baum, M., Freier, M.C., Freeman, K., Babikian, T., Ashwal, S., Chinnock, R., & Bailey, L.. "Neuropsychological Outcome of Infant Heart Transplant Recipients." The Journal of Pediatrics 145. (2004): 365-372. ( 9/2004 )
OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term neuropsychological outcomes of infant heart transplant recipients. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-five children (mean age, 6.4 years) with a primary diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome or other cardiac disorders participated in the study. Six areas of risk were assessed (birth; preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative status; long-term medical complications; and socioeconomic factors). Neuropsychological evaluations included the following: Wechsler Scales of Intelligence, Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Berry Visual Motor Integration Scale, Comprehensive Evaluation of Language Function, and Achenbach Child Behavioral Checklist. RESULTS: Intellectual functioning scores revealed a mean full-scale IQ of 81 +/- 19. Intraoperative and postoperative variables (bypass time, hospital course, and lowest posttransplant pH), long-term medical complications (serious infections and posttransplant surgical procedures), and socioeconomic factors were associated with cognitive functioning. Visual-motor functioning was also related to bypass and total support time. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term outcomes reveal low-average neuropsychological functioning and are related to intrasurgical-postsurgical, long-term medical, and socioeconomic factors. The neuropsychological and psychosocial functioning of infant heart transplant recipients will be important to address as they mature during adolescence and adulthood.