Loma Linda University

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Kerby Oberg, MD, PhD
Professor, Pathology and Human Anatomy
School of Medicine
Member, Anatomy, SM, Faculty of Graduate Studies
Publications    Book Review - Scholarly Journals--Published
  • Oberg, KC. 2009. Review of “Freaks of Nature: What Anomalies Tell Us About Development and Evolution”. Doody''s Review Service (on-line). Available:http://www.doody.com ( 5/2009 )
  Scholarly Journals--Published
  • Oberg KC, Feenstra JM, Manske PR, Tonkin MA. 2010. Developmental Biology and Classification of Congenital Anomalies of the Hand and Upper Extremity. J Hand Surg 35A:2066–2076. ( 12/2010 - 1/2011 )
  • Oberg KC, Harris TE, Wongworawat MD, Wood VE. 2009.  Combined congenital radial and ulnar longitudinal deficiencies: A case report. J Hand Surgery 34A:1298–1302. ( 10/2009 )
  • Manske PR, Oberg KC. 2009. Classification and Developmental Biology of Congenital Anomalies of the Hand and Upper Extremity.  J Bone  Joint Surg 91(s4):3-18. ( 7/2009 )
  • Wang BW, Keith AL, Pira CU, Feenstra JM, Oberg KC. 2009.  Prostatic Hox genes: Expression during development and in TRAMP tumor cells.  FASEB J. 23: 470.6 ( 4/2009 )
  • Feenstra FM, Kanaya K, Pira CU, Oberg KC. 2009. . Lmx1b modulates extracellular matrix expression during limb dorsalization.  FASEB J. 23: 470.4 ( 4/2009 )
  • Komorowska-Timek E, Oberg KC, Timek TA, Gridley DS, Miles DA. 2009. The effect of AlloDerm envelopes on periprosthetic capsule formation with and without radiation.  Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009 Mar;123(3):807-16. ( 3/2009 )
  • Pira CU, Caltharp SA, Kanaya K, Manu SK, Greer LF, Oberg KC.  2009. Identification of Developmental Enhancers using Targeted Regional Electroporation (TREP) of Evolutionarily Conserved Regions.  In Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence 2009, Kricka LJ, Stanley PE (eds). Chichester: Wiley, pp 319-323 ( 1/2009 )
  • Magaki S, Caltharp S, Westervelt D, Pira C, Greer LF, Oberg KC. 2009.  Characterization of a Nogo-associated enhancer.  J Invest Med 57:s107 ( 1/2009 )
  • Kanaya K. Feenstra JM, Pira CU, Oberg KC. 2008. Emx2 in limb dorsalization..  Dev Biol 319 (2): 509. #138 ( 7/2008 )
  • Magaki S, Raghavan R, Mueller C. Oberg KC, Vinters HV, Kirsch WM. "Iron, copper and iron regulatory protein 2 in Alzheimer?s disease and related dementias." Neurosci Lett 418.1 (2007): 72-76. ( 1/2007 ) Link...
    Accumulating evidence implicates a role for altered iron and copper metabolism in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, imbalances in the levels of the various forms of iron at different stages of AD have not been examined. In this pilot study we extracted and measured the levels of loosely bound, non-heme and total iron and copper in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of patients with mild-moderate AD (n=3), severe AD (n=8) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, n=6), using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Additionally, the expression of iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) was examined in relation to the pathological hallmarks of AD and DLB, amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), and Lewy bodies, by immunohistochemistry. We found significantly decreased loosely bound iron in the hippocampal white matter of mild-moderate and severe AD patients and a trend towards increased non-heme iron in the hippocampal gray matter of severe AD patients. Furthermore, decreased levels of total copper were seen in severe AD and DLB frontal cortex compared to controls, suggesting an imbalance in brain metal levels in both AD and DLB. The decrease in loosely bound iron in mild-moderate AD patients may be associated with myelin breakdown seen in the beginning stages of AD and implicates that iron dysregulation is an early event in AD pathogenesis.
  • Caltharp SA, Pira CU, Mishima N, Youngdale EN, McNeil DS, Liwnics BH, Oberg KC. "NOGO-A induction and localization during chick brain development indicates a role disparate from neurite outgrowth inhibition." BMC Development 7.32 (2007): 1-15. ( 1/2007 ) Link...
    BACKGROUND: Nogo-A, a myelin-associated protein, inhibits neurite outgrowth and abates regeneration in the adult vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) and may play a role in maintaining neural pathways once established. However, the presence of Nogo-A during early CNS development is counterintuitive and hints at an additional role for Nogo-A beyond neurite inhibition. RESULTS: We isolated chicken NOGO-A and determined its sequence. A multiple alignment of the amino acid sequence across divergent species, identified five previously undescribed, Nogo-A specific conserved regions that may be relevant for development. NOGO gene transcripts (NOGO-A, NOGO-B and NOGO-C) were differentially expressed in the CNS during development and a second NOGO-A splice variant was identified. We further localized NOGO-A expression during key phases of CNS development by in situ hybridization. CNS-associated NOGO-A was induced coincident with neural plate formation and up-regulated by FGF in the transformation of non-neural ectoderm into neural precursors. NOGO-A expression was diffuse in the neuroectoderm during the early proliferative phase of development, and migration, but localized to large projection neurons of the optic tectum and tectal-associated nuclei during architectural differentiation, lamination and network establishment. CONCLUSION: These data suggest Nogo-A plays a functional role in the determination of neural identity and/or differentiation and also appears to play a later role in the networking of large projection neurons during neurite formation and synaptogenesis. These data indicate that Nogo-A is a multifunctional protein with additional roles during CNS development that are disparate from its later role of neurite outgrowth inhibition in the adult CNS.
  • Gheorghe CP, Mohan S, Oberg KC, Longo LD. "Gene Expression Patterns in the Hypoxic Murine Placenta: A Role in Epigenesis?." Reproductive Sciences 14. (2007): 223-233. ( 1/2007 ) Link...
    Hypoxia has been identified as a major stress or in placental and fetal development. To test the hypothesis that hypoxic stress responses are associated with gene expression changes, the authors measured gene expression in the mouse placenta in response to 48 hours of hypoxia. Embryonic day 15.5 pregnant mice were exposed to 48 hours of hypoxia (10.5% O(2)), after which the Affymetrix Mouse 430A_2.0 array was used to measure gene expression changes in the placenta. The authors observed 171 probe sets, corresponding to 163 genes, that were regulated by hypoxia (P < .01). Ninety genes were upregulated, and 73 were downregulated. The authors functionally annotated the regulated genes and examined overrepresented functional categories. Among the upregulated and downregulated genes, several overrepresented functional categories were observed. Upregulated genes included those involved in metabolism, oxygen transport, proteolysis, cell death, metabolism of reactive oxygen species, and DNA methylation. Genes involved in transcription, cell cycle regulation, and cell structure were downregulated. Microarray analysis has allowed the description of the genetic responses to hypoxia in the mouse placenta. The observation that hypoxia upregulates reactive oxygen species metabolism, in conjunction with DNA methylation enzymes, suggests that hypoxia may contribute to long-term epigenetic changes in stressed fetal tissues and organs.
  • Naruse T, Takahara M, Takagi M, Oberg KC, Ogino T. "Busulfan-Induced Central Polydactyly, Syndactyly and Cleft Hand/Foot: A Common Mechanism of Disruption Leads to Divergent Phenotypes." Dev Growth Differ 49.6 (2007): 533-541. ( 1/2007 ) Link...
    The prevalence of clinical phenotypes that exhibit combinations of central polydactyly, syndactyly, or cleft hand or foot is higher than would be expected for random independent mutations. We have previously demonstrated that maternal ingestion of a chemotherapeutic agent, busulfan, at embryonic day 11 (E11) induces these defects in various combinations in rat embryo limbs. In an effort to determine the mechanism by which busulfan disrupts digital development, we examined cell death by Nile Blue staining and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays; we also carried out whole mount in situ hybridization for fibroblast growth factor-8 (Fgf8), bone morphogenetic protein-4 (Bmp4), and sonic hedgehog (Shh) to examine developmental pathways linked to these defects. In busulfan-treated embryos, diffuse cell death was evident in both ectoderm and mesoderm, peaking at E13. The increased cell death leads to regression of Fgf8 in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and Bmp4 and Shh in the underlying mesoderm. The subsequent pattern of interdigital apoptosis and cartilage condensation was variably disrupted. These results suggest that busulfan manifests its teratogenic effects by inducing cell death of both ectoderm and mesoderm, with an associated reduction in tissue and a disruption in the generation of patterning molecules during critical periods of digit specification.
  • Sasaki GH, Oberg KC, Tucker B, Gaston M. "The effectiveness and safety of topical PhotoActif phosphatidylcholine-based anti-cellulite gel and LED (red and near-infrared) light on Grade II-III thigh cellulite: A randomized, double-blinded study." J Cosmet Laser Ther 9.2 (2007): 87-96. ( 1/2007 ) Link...
    BACKGROUND: Cellulite of the upper lateral and posterior thighs and lower buttocks represents a common, physiological and unwanted condition whose etiologies and effective management are subjects of continued debate. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this controlled, double-blinded study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel phosphatidylcholine-based, cosmeceutical anti-cellulite gel combined with a light-emitting diode (LED) array at the wavelengths of red (660 nm) and near-infrared (950 nm), designed to counter the possible mechanisms that purportedly accentuate the presence of thigh cellulite. METHODS: Nine healthy female volunteers with Grade II-III thigh cellulite were randomly treated twice daily with an active gel on one thigh and a placebo gel on the control thigh for 3 months. Twice weekly, each thigh was exposed for a 15-minute treatment with LED light for a total of 24 treatments. At 0, 6, and 12 weeks of the study the following clinical determinants were obtained: standardized digital photography, height and weight measurements, standardized thigh circumference tape measurements, pinch testing, body mass index (kg/m2), body fat analysis (Futrex-5500/XL near-infrared analyzer), and digital high-resolution ultrasound imaging of the dermal-adiposal border. In selected patients, full-thickness biopsies of the placebo and active-treated sites were obtained. At 18 months, repeat standardized digital photography, height and weight measurements, and body mass index measurements were obtained. RESULTS: At the end of 3 months, eight of nine thighs treated with the phosphatidylcholine-based, anti-cellulite gel and LED treatments were downgraded to a lower cellulite grade by clinical examination, digital photography, and pinch test assessment. Digital ultrasound at the dermal-adiposal interface demonstrated not only a statistically significant reduction of immediate hypodermal depth, but also less echo-like intrusions into the dermal layer. Three of six biopsies from thighs treated for 3 months with the active gel and LED treatments demonstrated less intrusion of subcutaneous fat into the papillary and reticular dermis. In nine placebo and LED-treated thighs and one of the actively treated thighs, minimal clinical changes were observed or measured by the clinical determinants throughout the 3-month study. At the month-18 evaluation period for the eight responsive thighs, five thighs reverted back to their original cellulite grading, while three thighs continued to maintain their improved status. Patients experienced minimal and transient side effects that included puritus, erythema and swelling. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this small but well-documented, randomized, double-blinded study affirms that eight of nine thighs with Grade II-III cellulite responded positively to a novel, combined 3-month treatment program of a phosphatidylcholine-based, anti-cellulite gel and LED exposure, as determined by the clinical determinants obtained. Patients experienced minimal and transient side effects. At the month-18 evaluation period (15 months after treatment), five responsive thighs reverted back to their original cellulite grading, indicating a need for maintenance treatment. Future studies are needed to verify these tentative positive observations.
  Non-Scholarly Journals
  • Oberg KC.  2008.  A word fitly spoken. December 17.  In: Morning Rounds: Daily Devotional Stories.. Hadley D (ed.). Loma Linda University Press, Loma Linda, CA. pp 351 ( 12/2008 )