Loma Linda University

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Nadim Baba, DMD, MSD
Professor, Restorative Dentistry
School of Dentistry
Member, Prosthodontics, SD, Faculty of Graduate Studies
Publications    Book Review - Scholarly Journals--Published
  • Maxillofacial Rehabilitation: Prosthodontic and Surgical Management of Cancer-Related, Acquired, and Congenital Defects of the Head and Neck, Third Edition. Journal of Prosthodontics. Volume 22, Issue 3, page 250April 2013.

    ( 4/2013 )
  Scholarly Journals--Published
  • Baba NZ, Goodacre CJ, Daher T. The restoration of endodontically treated teeth: the seven keys to success. General Dentistry 2009;57(6):596-603.

    ( 9/2009 ) Link...

     Preservation of tooth integrity and strength is important for the long-term survival of endodontically treated teeth. Endodontic treatment and post space preparation requires reduction of the remaining supportive tooth structure. Restorative modalities following root canal therapy must provide sufficient strength for the prosthetic material and tooth structures. This article presents seven key factors that should be taken into consideration to ensure clinical success when restoring an endodontically treated tooth.

  • Baba NZ, Golden G, Goodacre CJ. Non-metallic prefabricated dowels: A review of compositions, properties, laboratory and clinical test results. Journal of Prosthodontics 2009;18:527-536.

    ( 8/2009 ) Link...

    PURPOSE:

    Prefabricated dowels have become popular, and a wide variety of systems are available. Recently, in response to a need for tooth-colored dowels, several nonmetallic dowels such as carbon-fiber epoxy resin, zirconia, glass fiber-reinforced epoxy resin, and ultra-high polyethelene fiber-reinforced dowels are available. With a plethora of different materials and systems currently available for use, an overview of the scientific literature on nonmetallic dowels is indicated. This article reviews the current literature dealing with the compositions, properties, and laboratory and clinical test results of nonmetallic prefabricated dowels.

    METHODS:

    A comprehensive review of the literature was completed seeking evidence for the treatment of teeth with nonmetallic prefabricated dowels. A search of English language peer-reviewed literature was undertaken using MEDLINE and PubMed with a focus on clinical research articles published between 1996 and 2007. A hand search of relevant dental journals was also completed.

    RESULTS:

    The literature demonstrates that in vitro investigations demonstrated favorable physical and mechanical properties of these dowels; however, clinically, there has been a wide range of reported failure percentages.

    CONCLUSION:

    Since there is considerable variation in reported failure percentages, longer-term studies are needed that present data regarding all types of complications that have been identified in the literature.

  • Daher T, Baba N, Morgano SM. A custom-made device to unlock extracoronal locking-type attachments. J Prosthet Dent 2008;100:406-7

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  • Baba NZ, Daher T. "Oral rehabilitation of ectodermal dysplasia with removable prosthodontics: a case report." Journal of the Lebanese dental Association 39. (2001): 31-36.

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  • Baba NZ, Itani MN. "Implant-supported mandibular overdenture retained with Locator abutments: a case report." Journal Dentaire du Quebec 42. (2005): 115-120.

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  • Daher T, Meserkhani V, Baba NZ, Morgano S. "Time-saving, predictable method for the fabrication of a definitive cast for implant-supported prosthesis." Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 98. (2007): 70-71.

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  • Arnett MR, Baba NZ. Improving tobacco dependence education among the Loma Linda University School of Dentistry faculty. J Dent Educ 2011;75(6):832-8
     
    (*) Link...

    Tobacco-related health problems are among the most preventable forms of illness. By assuming proactive tobacco use counseling roles, dental professionals can help reduce the number of people who use tobacco. Minimum standards for intervention by dental care providers were established more than a decade ago by the American Dental Association and the American Dental Hygienists' Association. The goal of Loma Linda University School of Dentistry in its tobacco-cessation efforts is to move beyond those standards towards more effective interventions. The school conducted a study to determine the formal education of the faculty, evaluate the current state of tobacco dependence education (TDE) delivered to students, identify topics that dental faculty members wanted to further their education, promote tobacco dependence education among the dental faculty, and enhance teaching moments on the clinic floor. A fifty-seven question survey was e-mailed to all faculty members with >0.4 FTE (full-time equivalent) during the 2007-08 school year. The response rate was 80 percent (101 out of 126). The results revealed that faculty members have limited formal training; however, 73.1 percent agreed that TDE would be beneficial to them. They also believed that, upon graduation, dental professionals should be able to perform at least a ten-minute moderate intervention program and discuss options for tobacco dependence treatments with patients. This project was designed to establish a 2008-09 baseline of TDE clinical practices, knowledge, and attitudes and to assess the effects of faculty development, curricular didactic, and clinical changes.

  • Chedid NR, Bourgeois D, Kaloustian H, Baba NZ, Pilipili C. Caries prevalence and caries risk in a sample of Lebanese preschool children. Odontostomatol Trop 2011 Jun;34(134):31-45.
     
    (*) Link...

    OBJECTIVES:

    This study describes early childhood caries prevalence and caries risk in a group of Lebanese preschoolers.

    METHOD AND MATERIALS:

    99 healthy children, aged four years or less, were recruited at the Dental medicine faculty, Saint-Joseph university, Beirut, Lebanon. After parental consent, questionnaires investigated children's dietary and oral hygiene habits and parents' education and health behaviors. Oral examinations, with bite-wing radiographs when necessary, determined decayed-filled surfaces and plaque scores. Salivary testing assessed buffer capacity and streptococcus mutans (Sm) and lactobacillus (Lb) presence. The three tests (questionnaire, oral examination, salivary testing) established a caries risk assessment tool, determining subjects' caries risk scores, classified as low (C0), moderate (C1), high (C2) or very high (C3).

    RESULTS:

    25.3% of subjects were caries-free, 24.2% had 4 carious lesions or less, 28.3%, 5 to 9 lesions and 22.2% over 10 lesions. 11.1% of plaque scores were low to mild, 18.2% moderate, 46.4% high, and 24.3% very high. Salivary buffer capacity was: 29.3% high, 57.6% medium and 13.1% low. High levels of Sm, (66.7%) correlated with plaque presence and proximal caries. High levels of Lb (52.5%) correlated with plaque presence and smooth-surface caries, and correlated significantly with occlusal caries. Regular tooth brushing yielded lower plaque, but not significantly lower caries levels. Systemic fluorides were associated with lower plaque and caries scores. Children of educated parents with regular dental visits and oral hygiene had lower plaque and caries scores. Caries risk distribution was: CO: 16.2%, C1: 29.3%, C2: 15.1% and C3: 39.4%.

    CONCLUSION:

    Most subjects had at least one carious lesion (74.7%), and 70.7% showed high to very high plaque scores. Over half the sample presented high or very high caries risk. These findings deserve further investigation of the Lebanese preschoolers' population.

  • Chedid NR, Bourgeois D, Kaloustian H, Pilipili C, Baba NZ. Caries risk management: effect on caries incidence in a sample of Lebanese preschool children. Odontostomatol Trop 2012 Sep;35(139):26-40.

     
    (*) Link...

    OBJECTIVES:

    This clinical prospective study describes how caries preventive measures applied according to caries risk affect new caries incidence in a group of preschoolers, as compared to a group where standardized caries prevention is applied, regardless of risk.

    METHOD AND MATERIALS:

    Healthy children, aged four years or less, recruited at the Faculté de Médecine Dentaire, Université Saint-Joseph, Beirut, Lebanon were assigned, after parental consent, to an experimental or a control group. Caries risk was determined based on a parental questionnaire, salivary levels of Steptococcus mutans (Sm) and Lactobacillus (Lb), salivary buffer capacity, plaque levels and carious lesions prevalence, then subjects were classified into four caries risk categories. In the experimental group, preventive measures designed for each risk category were applied periodically, whereas control subjects received only standardized preventive measures at regular intervals. All subjects were reevaluated for Sm, Lb, salivary buffer capacity, plaque and new carious lesions after 24 months.

    RESULTS:

    Statistically significant reductions in salivary Sm (p=0.001) and Lb (p=0.003) levels, plaque scores (p=0) and caries incidence (p=0.003) were observed in the experimental group. In the control group, no significant differences were observed between initial and final Sm (p=0.18) and Lb (p=0.109) levels or plaque scores (p=0.255), and caries incidence was not significantly reduced (p=0.584).

    CONCLUSION:

    The present study's results suggest that caries preventive measures applied according to caries risk may reduce caries risk factors and new caries incidence in preschool-aged children. These findings deserve further investigation to benefit early childhood caries prevention on a larger scale.

  • Arnett MR, Baba NZ, Cheek D. Improving tobacco dependence education for dental and dental hygiene students at Loma Linda University School of Dentistry. J Dent Educ 2012 Apr;76(4):472-8.
    (*) Link...

    In a general effort to facilitate dental professionals' effective tobacco-dependence education (TDE), the student part of the project reported here had three purposes: 1) to promote tobacco cessation activities in the dental school clinic, 2) to evaluate dental and dental hygiene students' confidence level in treating tobacco-dependent patients, and 3) to determine the frequency, duration, and depth with which the students assisted tobacco-dependent patients. Surveys of senior dental and dental hygiene students at the Loma Linda University School of Dentistry were conducted in 2008. Of the twenty-seven questions on the survey, nineteen related to the procedures students performed and questions asked of patients, one question asked how many minutes students spent counseling patients, and seven questions related to barriers to incorporating TDE activities. Only 56.5 percent of the responding dental students reported they routinely "asked and advised" about their patients' smoking behaviors, but 87.5 percent of the responding dental hygiene students reported they routinely did so. After the curricular intervention, the follow-up survey found that the dental students more frequently showed their patients the effects of tobacco on the oral mucosa and more frequently discussed pharmacotherapy options and made referrals during routine care. Until all dental and dental hygiene students are required to meet written board and clinical competencies in TDE and given adequate mentoring by clinical faculty to treat tobacco-dependent patients, the likelihood of seeing major improvements in tobacco-cessation treatment in dental practices is low.

  • Kattadiyil MT, Goodacre CJ, Baba NZ. CAD/CAM complete dentures: a review of two commercial fabrication systems. J Calif Dent Assoc 2013 Jun;41(6):407-16.
    (*) Link...

    The use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) has become available for complete dentures through the AvaDent and Dentca systems. AvaDent uses laser scanning and computer technology. Teeth are arranged and bases formed using proprietary software.The bases are milled from prepolymerized pucks of resin. Dentca uses computer software to produce virtual maxillary and mandibular edentulous ridges, arrange the teeth and form bases. The dentures are fabricated using a conventional processing technique.

  • Baba NZ, Berry F, Lehnhof MC. Early shear bond strength of experimental amalgam-bonding combinations with and without thermocycling. Int Arab J dent 2011;2(2):25-30.

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  • Baba NZ, Goodacre CJ. Key principles that enhance success when restoring endodontically treated teeth. Roots 2011;7(2):30-35.

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  Books and Chapters
  • Nadim Z. Baba. Contemporary restoration of endodontically treated teeth: Evidence-based diagnosis and treatment planning. Chicago, IL: Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc., 2012.

    ISBN 978-0-86715-571-6

    (*) Link...

    Written by a group of renowned experts three decades after the publication of the last comprehensive book on this topic, this much-needed book has a wealth of evidence-based information on all facets of the restoration of pulpless teeth. With a better understanding of the factors that can influence the prognosis of severely compromised teeth, the approach to treating these teeth has evolved, and this text offers a well-balanced, contemporary approach to treatment planning. Traditional principles and techniques are reviewed and reinforced, along with modern materials and methods, all with a firm foundation in the best available scientific evidence and with an emphasis on clinical studies. Many of the chapters provide comprehensive, step-by-step descriptions of technical procedures with accompanying illustrations to guide the reader through every stage of restoring pulpless teeth, including fabrication of various foundation restorations, cementation techniques, and methods of provisionalization. Preprosthetic adjunctive procedures, such as surgical crown lengthening, repair of perforations, and orthodontic measures, are also described and illustrated. For years to come, this text will remain a definitive reference for specialists involved in the restoration of pulpless teeth or engaged in planning treatment for structurally compromised teeth.

  • Baba NZ, Goodacre CJ. Treatment Options and Materials for Endodontically Treated Teeth. In: Baba NZ. Contemporary restoration of endodontically treated teeth: Evidence-based diagnosis and treatment planning, Chicago, IL: Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc., 2012.

    (*) Link...
  • Baba NZ, Goodacre CJ, Al-Harbi F. Principles for Restoration of Endodontically Treated Teeth. In: Baba NZ. Contemporary restoration of endodontically treated teeth: Evidence-based diagnosis and treatment planning, Chicago, IL: Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc., 2012.

    (*) Link...
  • Garbacea A, Baba NZ, Lozada JL. Intra-alveolar Transplantation. In: Baba NZ. Contemporary restoration of endodontically treated teeth: Evidence-based diagnosis and treatment planning, Chicago, IL: Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc., 2012.

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  • Forde R, Baba NZ, Jekki B. Post Removal. In: Baba NZ. Contemporary restoration of endodontically treated teeth: Evidence-based diagnosis and treatment planning, Chicago, IL: Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc., 2012.

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  • Baba NZ, Daher T, Jekki R. Retrofitting of a Post to an Existing Crown. In: Baba NZ. Contemporary restoration of endodontically treated teeth: Evidence-based diagnosis and treatment planning, Chicago, IL: Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc., 2012.

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  • Goodacre CJ, Baba NZ: Restoration of Endodontically treated teeth. Chapter 40. In Endodontics 6th ed., Ingle JI and Bakland LK editors. BC Decker Inc., Toronto, Canada, 2008.

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