Loma Linda University

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Sujatha Rajaram, PhD
Associate Professor, School of Public Health
School of Public Health
Publications    Scholarly Journals--Published
  • Wien M, Rajaram S, Oda K, Sabaté J. Decreasing the linoleic acid to alpha-linolenic acid diet ratio increases eicosapentaenoic acid in erythrocytes in adults. Lipids. 2010 Aug;45(8):683-92.  ( 0/2010 )
  • Burns-Whitmore BL, Haddad EH, Sabaté J, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Tanzman J, Rajaram S. Effect of n-3 fatty acid enriched eggs and organic eggs on serum lutein in free-living lacto-ovo vegetarians. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Nov;64(11):1332-7. ( 0/2010 )
  • Rajaram S, Hasso Haddad E, Mejia A, Sabaté J. Walnuts and fatty fish influence different serum lipid fractions in normal to mildly hyperlipidemic individuals: a randomized controlled study. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:1657S-1663S. ( 5/2009 )
    Background: Increased consumption of n-3 fatty acids reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). Objective: To determine if walnuts (plant n-3 fatty acid) and fatty fish (marine n-3 fatty acid) have similar effects on serum lipid markers at intakes recommended for primary prevention of CHD. Design: In a randomized crossover feeding trial, 25 normal to mildly hyperlipidemic adults consumed 3 isoenergetic diets (~30% total fat, <10% saturated fat) for 4 wk each: control (no nuts or fish); walnut (42.5 g walnuts/10.1 MJ) and fish (113 g salmon, twice/wk). Fasting blood was drawn at baseline and end of each diet period and analyzed for serum lipids. Results: Serum total and LDL cholesterol following the walnut diet (4.87 ± 0.18 mmol/L, 2.77 ± 0.15 mmol/L) was lower than the control (5.14 ± 0.18 mmol/L, 3.06 ± 0.15 mmol/L) and fish (5.33 ± 0.18 mmol/L, 3.2 ± 0.15 mmol/L; P<0.0001) diets. Fish diet reduced serum triglyceride, and increased HDL cholesterol (1.0 ± 0.11 mmol/L, 1.23 ± 0.05 mmol/L) compared to control (1.12 ± 0.11 mmol/L, 1.19 ± 0.05 mmol/L) and walnut (1.11 ± 0.11 mmol/L; P<0.05, 1.18 ± 0.05 mmol/L; P<0.001) diets. The ratios of total: HDL cholesterol, LDL: HDL cholesterol and apo B: A-1 were lower (P<0.05) after walnut compared to the other two diets. Conclusions: Including walnuts and fatty fish to a healthy diet lowered serum cholesterol and triglyceride, respectively, affecting CHD risk favorably.
  • Torabian S, Haddad E, Rajaram S, Banta J, Sabaté J. Acute effect of nut consumption on plasma total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in healthy volunteers. J Hum Nutr Diet, 2009;22:64-71. ( 0/2009 )
    Background: Nuts have been shown to have beneficial effects on human health due to the healthy fat content; however, the effect of antioxidants (i.e. polyphenols) in nuts have not been fully investigated. The present study aimed to assess the immediate effect of a polyphenol-rich meal (75% of energy from nuts: walnuts or almonds) and a polyphenol-free meal on plasma polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in healthy volunteers. Methods: Thirteen subjects participated in a randomized, crossover, intervention study. After an overnight fast, walnuts, almonds or a control meal in the form of smoothies were consumed by study subjects. Each subject participated on three occasions, 1 week apart, consuming one of the smoothies each time. Blood samples were obtained at fasting and then at intervals up to 3.5 h after consumption of the smoothies. Results: There was a significant increase in plasma polyphenol concentration following both nut meals, with peak concentrations being achieved at 90 min, and with a walnut meal having a more sustained higher concentration than an almond meal. The plasma total antioxidant capacity reached its highest point at 150 min postconsumption of the nut meals, and was higher after the almond compared to walnut meal. A gradual significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the susceptibility of plasma to lipid peroxidation was observed 90 min after ingestion of the nut meals. No changes were observed following consumption of control meal. Conclusions: Consumption of both nuts increased plasma polyphenol concentrations, increased the total antioxidant capacity and reduced plasma lipid peroxidation.
  • Thorpe DL, Knutsen SF, Beeson WL, Rajaram S, Fraser GE. Effects of meat consumption and vegetarian diet on risk of wrist fracture over 25 years in a cohort of peri- and postmenopausal women. Publ Health Nutr, 2008;11:564-72. ( 0/2008 )
    Background: Evidence suggesting that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may be beneficial to bone health has sparked interest in the potential benefit of a vegetarian diet. However, other studies have raised a question regarding the adequacy of protein in such a diet. Objective: The aim of the present study was to take a whole foods approach in examining the effects of foods high in protein on the risk of wrist fracture (WF) in a cohort with a significant proportion consuming a meat-free diet. Design: A cohort study of women who completed two lifestyle surveys 25 years apart. Subjects: One thousand eight hundred and sixty-five peri- and postmenopausal women at the time of the first survey. Results: There was a significant interaction between meat consumption and foods high in vegetable protein. Among vegetarians, those who consumed the least vegetable protein intake were at highest risk for fracture. However, increasing levels of plant-based high-protein foods decreased WF risk, with a 68% reduction in risk (hazard ratio (HR)50.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13–0.79) in the highest intake group. Among those with lowest vegetable protein consumption, increasing meat intake decreased the risk of WF, with the highest consumption decreasing risk by 80% (HR50.20, 95% CI 0.06–0.66). Conclusions: The finding that higher consumption frequencies of foods rich in protein were associated with reduced WF supports the importance of adequate protein for bone health. The similarity in risk reduction by vegetable protein foods compared with meat intake suggests that adequate protein intake is attainable in a vegetarian diet.
  • Rajaram S, Sabaté J. Nuts, body weight and insulin resistance. Br J Nutr, 2006, 96:S79-S86. ( 0/2006 )
  • Jambazian P, Haddad E, Rajaram S, Tanzman J, Sabaté J. Almonds in the diet simultaneously improve plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations and reduce plasma lipids.  J Am Diet Assoc, 2005;105:449-454. ( 0/2005 )
  Scholarly Journals--Accepted
  • Rajaram S, Connell KM, Sabaté J. Effect of almond-enriched high monounsaturated fat diet on selected markers of inflammation: a randomized, controlled, crossover study. Br J Nutr 2009 (in press). ( 0/2009 )
    Frequent consumption of nuts lowers the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). While lowering blood lipids is one of the mechanisms for cardio-protection, this study sought to determine if monounsaturated fat rich almonds also influences other CHD risk factors such as inflammation and hemostasis. This was a randomized, controlled, crossover feeding study with 25 healthy adults (11 men; 14 women), age 22-53 y. Following a 2 week run-in phase (34% energy from fat), subjects were assigned in random order to 3 diets for 4 weeks each: a heart healthy control diet with no nuts (<30% energy from fat), low almond diet and high almond diet (10% or 20% isoenergetic replacement of control diet with almonds respectively).  Serum E-selectin was significantly lower on the high almond diet compared to the control diet. E-selectin decreased as the percentage of energy from almonds increased (P <0.0001). C-reactive protein (CRP) was lower in both the almond diets compared to the control diet. A clear dose response was not observed for either E-selectin or CRP. There was no effect of diet on interleukin-6 or fibrinogen. Tissue plasminogen activator antigen was significantly lower on the control and high almond diets compared to the low almond diet, although the values were within normal range. In conclusion, consumption of almonds influenced a few but not all of the markers of inflammation and hemostasis. A clear dose response was not observed for any of the markers studied.
  Books and Chapters
  • Rajaram S, Sabaté J. Nuts, Body Weight and Insulin Resistance. In Frutos Secos, Salud y Culturas Mediterraneás (Tree Nuts, Health, and Mediterranean Culture). Edited by Salas J, Ros E, Sabaté J. Editorial Glosa, Barcelona, Spain, 2005, pg. 277-296. ( 0/2005 )
  • Rajaram S, Dyett PA, Sabaté J. Nutrition and Vegetarianism. In Nutritional Concerns of Women. Edited by Klimis-Azcas, D, Wolinsky, I. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2004, pg. 419-456. ( 0/2004 )