Loma Linda University

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Faculty Directory
Sigrid James, PhD
Professor, Social Work & Social Ecology
Member, Faculty of Graduate Studies
Publications    Scholarly Journals--Published
  • Banta, J.E., James, S., Haviland, M.G., & Andersen, R. (2012). Race/ethnicity, parent-identified emotional difficulties, and mental health visits among California children. Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research, available at DOI: 10.1007/s11414-012-9298-7.


    ( 10/2012 ) Link...
  • James, S., McField, E.S. & Montgomery, S.B. (2012/online). Risk factor profiles among intravenous drug using young adults: A latent class analysis approach. Addictive Behaviors

    ( 9/2012 ) Link...
  • James, S., Roesch, S.C. & Zhang, J. (2012). Behavioral Outcomes of Youth with Episodes in Group Care – A Propensity Score Matching Approach Using National Data. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 20, 144-156.

    ( 9/2012 )
  • Traube, D.E., James, S. & Zhang, J. (2012). A national study of risk and protective factors for substance use among youth in the child welfare system. Addictive Behaviors, 37(5), 641-650.

    ( 7/2012 )
  • Tharayil, P., James, S., Morgan, R. & Freeman, K. (2012). Examining outcomes of acute psychiatric hospitalization among children. Mental Health in Social Work, 10 (3), 20-232.

    ( 5/2012 )
  • Ringle, J.L., Huefner, J.C, James, S., Pick, R. & Thompson, R.W. (2012). 12-month follow-up outcomes for youth departure an integrated residential continuum of care. Children & Youth Services Review, 34, 675-679.

    ( 4/2012 )
  • James, S., Zhang, J. & Landsverk, J. (2012). Residential care for youth in the child welfare system: Stop-gap option or not? Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 29(1), 48-65.

    ( 1/2012 )
  • James, S. (2011). What Works in Group Care? – A Structured Review of Treatment Models for Group Home and Residential Care. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 308-321.

    ( 1/2011 )
  • Huefner, J.C., James, S., Ringle, J., Thompson, R.W. & Daly, D.L. (2010).  Patterns of movement for youth within an integrated continuum of residential services. Children and Youth Services Review, 32 (6), 857-864.

    ( 6/2010 )
  • James, S. (2010). Promoting Placement Stability. CW 360o. Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare, University of Minnesota

    ( 4/2010 )
  • Leslie, L., James, S., Monn, A., Doerfer, M., Zhang, J. & Aarons, G. (2010). Health-risk behaviors in young adolescents in child welfare. Journal of Adolescent Health, 47 (1), 26-34

    ( 1/2010 )
  • Berger, L.M., Bruch, S.K., Johnson, E.I., James, S., Rubin, D. (2009). Estimating the impact of out-of-home placement on child well-being: Approaching the problem of selection bias. Child Development, 80 (6), 1856-1876.

    ( 12/2009 )
  • Raghavan, R., Shi, P., James, S., Roesch, S.C., Aarons, G.A., & Leslie, L.K. (2009). Effects of placement changes on health insurance stability among a national sample of children in the child welfare system. Journal of Social Service Research, 35, 352-363.

    ( 11/2009 )
  • James, S., Montgomery, S.B., Leslie, L.K. & Zhang, J. (2009). Sexual risk behaviors among youth in the child welfare system. Children & Youth Services Review, 31, 990-1000.

    ( 7/2009 )
  • James, S., Landsverk, J., Leslie, L., Slymen, D. & Zhang, J. (2008). Entry into restrictive care settings - placement of last resort? Families in Society, 89 (3), 348-359.

    ( 8/2008 )
  • James, S., Monn, A., Palinkas, L. & Leslie, L. (2008). Maintaining sibling relationships for children in foster and adoptive placements. Children & Youth Services Review, 30(1), 90-106.

    ( 1/2008 )
  • Barth, R.P., Lloyd, C., Green, R.L., James, S., Leslie, L.K. & Landsverk, J. (2007). Predictors of high maintenance, multiple-move children with mental health problems. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 15 (1), 46-55.

    ( 1/2007 )
  • James, S., Leslie, L.K., Hurlburt, M., Slymen, D.J., Landsverk, J., Davis, I., Mathiesen, S. (2006). Children in foster care: Entry into intensive and restrictive mental health and residential care placements. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 14 (4),196-208.

    ( 12/2006 ) Link...

    Using longitudinal data from the National Survey on Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), this study investigates entry into intensive or restrictive settings over a 36-month study period. Specifically, this analysis examines entry into treatment foster care, group homes, residential treatment and inpatient psychiatric care for youth placed into out-of-home care (n=981). It aims to determine at what point in their first out-of-home episodes and for what reasons youth entered such settings. As NSCAW used a national probability sampling design, this analysis provides national estimates about entry into intensive or restrictive settings for youth in out-of-home care. Twenty-five percent of youth (n=280) experienced an intensive or restrictive setting during their first out-of-home care episode; 70 percent were in either group homes (33.2%) or residential treatment settings (37.0%). Half (48.9%) were placed into intensive or restrictive settings as a first placement during their first out-of-home episode. Logistic regression points to four statistically significant predictors of entry into intensive or restrictive settings: male gender, older age, behavior problems, and fewer placements in other settings prior to entry into such settings. Findings raise important questions about the role of intensive or restrictive settings in the continuum of services available to children in out-of-home care.

  • Barth, R., Landsverk, J., Chamberlain, P., Reid, J., Rolls, J., Hurlburt, M., Farmer, B., McCabe, James, S., Wood, P. & Kohl, P. (2005). Parent-mediated interventions in child welfare services: Planning for a more evidence-based approach to serving biological parents. Research on Social Work Practice, 15 (5), 353-371.

    ( 9/2005 )
  • Leslie, L.K., Hurlburt, M., James, S., Landsverk, J., Slymen, D.J., & Zhang, J. (2005).  Relationship between entry into child welfare and mental health service use. Psychiatric Services, 56 (8), 981-987

    ( 8/2005 )

    Objective: To examine the relationship between initiation of outpatient mental health service use and level of child welfare involvement (in-home, no child welfare services; in-home, child welfare services; out-of-home). Methods: Longitudinal data were collected on a subsample of children (n=3592), ages 2-14 years, enrolled in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), a nationally representative sample of children undergoing investigation for abuse or neglect. Event history analysis was used to model relative risk of initiation of mental health service use over time. Results: Hazard functions revealed a large increase in onset of mental health services at the time of contact with child welfare, varying by level of child welfare involvement, and leveling off by three months following initial contact with child welfare. The multivariate Cox proportional-hazards model indicated that children in in-home care receiving no child welfare services were about one third as likely [RR=0.31, 95% CI: 0.20, 0.47] to use mental health services compared to children in out-of-home care; children in in-home care receiving child welfare services were half as likely [RR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.68]. Other covariates in the model predicted mental health service use, including older age, Caucasian race/ethnicity, maltreatment history (specifically, physical abuse, physical neglect or abandonment) and need for mental health services as measured by the Child Behavior Checklist. Conclusions: Contact with child welfare functions as a gateway into mental health services for children in child welfare, even when controlling for need. Differences in service use by level of involvement deserve further exploration.

  • James, S. (2004). Why do foster care placements disrupt? An investigation of reasons for placement change in foster care. Social Service Review, 78 (4), 601-627.

    ( 12/2004 )

    This study examines the reasons for placement changes in foster care and analyzes determinates of the rate of behavior-related placement change. Findings indicate that 20 percent of all changes are behavior-related. Older age, externalizing behaviors, and emotional abuse increase the hazard of behavior-related changes. Risk is lower when the child spends more days in kinship care. Having numerous system- or policy-related moves does not increase risk of behavior-related changes. Risk is highest during the 100 days after entry into care, suggesting that factors contributing to behavior-related placement change might be present at or near the time a child enters care.

  • James, S., Landsverk, J., Slymen, D.J. & Leslie, L.K. (2004). Predictors of Outpatient Mental Health Service Use? Mental Health Services Research, 6 (3), 127-141.

    ( 9/2004 )

    This study examined the relationship between placement change and outpatient mental health service use. It is based on (1) conceptual propositions about the impact of the foster care living context on mental health service use, and (2) empirical knowledge about the adverse consequences of placement change. Results of the study, which were based on a cohort of 570 children in foster care in San Diego County, suggest an association between placement changes in child welfare and use of outpatient mental health services. Specifically, an increase in the number of placement changes predicted a greater rate of outpatient mental health visits. The study further found that children who experienced behavior-related placement changes received more outpatient mental health visits than children who experienced placement changes for other reasons. Follow-up analyses of the144 children who experienced any behavior-related placement changes further indicated that the rate of outpatient mental health service use almost doubled in the 90 days following the first behavior-related placement change. Findings from this study have implications for both the practice/policy and research fields in child welfare as well as mental health.

  Scholarly Journals--Accepted
  • ( 11/2010 - 11/2011 )