Loma Linda University

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Timothy McNaughton, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor, Emergency Medicine
School of Medicine
Publications    Scholarly Journals--Published
  • Malmstrom JA, McNaughton TG, Horch KW.. "Recording properties and biocompatibility of chronically implanted polymer-based intrafascicular electrodes.." Ann Biomed Eng. . (1998): -. ( 11/1998 ) Link...
    We implanted polymer-based longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes (polyLIFEs) in feline dorsal rootlets acutely and for periods of two to six months to evaluate their electrical properties and biocompatibility. A total of 38 implanted electrodes were analyzed. Some 25 of the 38 electrodes were implanted with an insulative flexible polymer cuff, which was required for recording of afferent activity in situ. Electrode impedances remained stable for the duration of the experiments. The distributions of axons were measured at three levels of the implanted rootlets: the implant level, 1-2 mm proximal to the implant with respect to the cell body, and 1-2 mm distal to the implant with respect to the cell body. Similar measurements were made in five samples of fascicles neighboring an implant and six samples of control tissue from animals in which no implants were placed. The polyLIFEs demonstrated a high degree of biocompatibility, as no adverse effects on axon size were observed in either the implanted fascicle or neighboring neural tissue. However, the insulative cuffs were found to be a source of compression, resulting in necrosis of the neural tissue.
  • McNaughton TG, Horch KW.. "Action potential classification with dual channel intrafascicular electrodes.." IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. . (1994): -. ( 7/1994 ) Link...
    Using recordings of peripheral nerve activity made with carbon fiber intrafascicular electrodes, we compared the performance of three different recording techniques (single channel, differential, and dual channel) and four different unit classification methods (linear discriminant analysis, template matching, a novel time amplitude windowing technique, and neural networks) in terms of errors in waveform classification and artifact rejection. Dual channel recording provided uniformly superior unit separability, neural networks gave the lowest classification error rates, and template matching had the best artifact rejection performance.
  • Goodall EV, Horch KW, McNaughton TG, Lybbert CM.. "Analysis of single-unit firing patterns in multi-unit intrafascicular recordings.." Med Biol Eng Comput. . (1993): -. ( 5/1993 ) Link...
    A system for extracting single-unit activity patterns from multi-unit neural recordings was tested using real and simulated neural data. The system provided reliable estimates of firing frequency for individual units in simulated multi-unit data and allowed reliable determinations of the responses of individual cutaneous mechanoreceptor units to 'natural' stimuli such as brushing or pressing on the skin. An implementation of the system, which operated online and in real time, was used to obtain estimates of multiple, single-unit responses from multi-unit intrafascicular electrode recordings. The pattern of activity across the population of units in a given recording gave a reliable indication of the type of stimulus that had evoked the activity. It was concluded that this system, used in combination with intrafascicular peripheral nerve recordings, could be used to provide online, real-time information about peripheral stimuli.
  • McNaughton TG, Power LA, Gilbert RD, Power GG.. "Endometrial transport generates the maternal-fetal electrical potential difference in guinea pigs.." Am J Physiol. . (1991): -. ( 8/1991 ) Link...
    These studies examined the transport characteristics of the uterine endometrium with respect to the origin and mechanism of generation of the maternal-fetal electrical potential difference (PD) in pregnant guinea pigs. Late-gestation animals were used in two experimental preparations. In vivo, a sealed uterine pouch that preserved blood flow to the endometrium was prepared by removal of the fetus, placenta, and fetal membranes from the uterus and replacement with Earle's solution, a balanced electrolyte solution. In vitro, sections of uterine wall comprised of myometrium and endometrium without fetal membranes were mounted in Ussing chambers. Transuterine PDs (fetal side negative) were indistinguishable in vivo and in vitro, averaging 29.6 +/- 4.5 and 32.6 +/- 6.1 (95% confidence interval) mV in the respective preparations. Both values are within the range of maternal-fetal PD measured in intact guinea pigs, indicating that the fetoplacental unit is not essential in generating an intrauterine PD. The maternal-fetal PD, therefore, is likely a passive result of the fetus and placenta being immersed in fluids at the intrauterine potential. In vitro, both PD and short-circuit current (Isc) were completely inhibited by ouabain (10(-3) M) at the serosal (maternal) side of the uterine wall but unaffected by the inhibitor from the luminal (fetal) side. Amiloride (10(-5) M) and valinomycin (10(-5) M) caused decreases in the PD when added to the luminal side, both in vivo and in vitro, and were both ineffective from the serosal side in vitro. Isc was reduced 83% from 315 +/- 24 to 53 +/- 6 (SE) microA/cm2 after luminal amiloride (5 x 10(-4) M), indicating that Na+ is the predominant ion actively transported.
  • McNaughton TG, Power GG.. "The maternal-fetal electrical potential difference: new findings and a perspective.." Placenta. . (1991): -. ( 5/1991 )
  • McNaughton TG, Power GG.. "The maternal-fetal electrical potential difference: new findings and a perspective.." Placenta. . (1991): -. ( 5/1991 )
  • McNaughton TG, Horch KW.. "Metallized polymer fibers as leadwires and intrafascicular microelectrodes.." J Neurosci Methods. 70.1 (1969): 103-110. (*) Link...
    We have developed a process for producing fine, very flexible microwires suitable for use as small signal leadwires or nerve electrodes. The process incorporates metallization of high-performance monofilament polymer fibers to yield electrically conductive fibers with greatly improved flexibility over solid metal wires of similar strength. The metallization layers are produced by serial vacuum deposition of a 0.3 micron thick coating of three metals, titanium-tungsten (Ti/W), gold (Au), and platinum (Pt), onto monofilament, poly-p-phenyl-terephthalate aramid fibers (Kevlar). The metallized fibers are then insulated with an approx. 1 micron thick layer of silicone elastomer. The result is a microlead with high electrical conductivity (linear resistance = 30 omega/cm), desirable interfacial properties, excellent mechanical stability and extremely high flexibility. These physical characteristics are appropriate for application as signal leadwires or recording/stimulating electrodes where small size and high flexibility are paramount. In this paper we report on the electrical and mechanical properties of these metallized fibers and demonstrate their use as intrafascicular electrodes for recording multi-unit neural activity in feline peripheral nerves.