Loma Linda University

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Tommy Kim, MD
Assistant Professor, Emergency Medicine
School of Medicine
Assistant Professor, Pediatrics
School of Medicine
Publications    Scholarly Journals--Published
  • Kim TY, Stewart G, Moynihan J, Voth M, Brown L.. "Signs and symptoms of cerebrospinal fluid shunt malfunction in the pediatric emergency department." Pediatric Emergency Care 22.1 (2006): 28-34. ( 1/2006 )
    OBJECTIVES: Pediatric patients with cerebrospinal fluid shunts frequently present to the emergency department for evaluation of possible shunt malfunction. Most shunt studies appear in the neurosurgical literature. To our knowledge, none have reviewed presenting signs and symptoms of shunt malfunction in patients who present to the pediatric emergency department. The study objective was to evaluate the medical record of children with cerebrospinal fluid shunts who presented to a pediatric emergency department to determine if any signs and/or symptoms were predictive of shunt malfunction. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted on 352 pediatric patients aged 0 to 18 years, who presented to the pediatric emergency department between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2002, with signs and/or symptoms that prompted an evaluation for possible shunt malfunction. RESULTS: Univariate analysis of all signs and symptoms revealed lethargy (odds ratio, 1.99; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-3.42; P = 0.02) and shunt site swelling (odds ratio, 2.56, 95% confidence interval, 1.08-6.07, P = 0.03) to be significantly predictive of shunt malfunction. Logistic regression analysis continued to show significance for lethargy (odds ratio, 2.20; bias-corrected 95% confidence interval, 1.11-3.63) and shunt site swelling (odds ratio, 3.10; bias-corrected 95% confidence interval, 1.38-9.05), but found no other study variable to be significant. Bootstrap resampling validated the importance of the significant variables identified in the regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, lethargy and shunt site swelling were predictive of shunt malfunction. Other signs and symptoms studied did not reach statistical significance; however, one must maintain a high index of suspicion when evaluating children with an intracranial shunt because the presentation of malfunction is widely varied. A missed diagnosis can result in permanent neurological sequelae or even death.
  • Rivera ML, Kim TY, Stewart GM, Minasyan L, Brown L.. "Albuterol nebulized in heliox in the initial ED treatment of pediatric asthma: a blinded, randomized controlled trial." American Journal of Emergency Medicine 24.1 (2006): 38-42. ( 1/2006 )
    OBJECTIVE: A prospective blinded, randomized controlled trial was undertaken to compare the initial response of albuterol nebulized in heliox or control in the treatment of moderately severe asthma in children presenting to a pediatric ED. METHODS: Patients were randomized to receive heliox (n = 20) or control (n = 21). The primary outcome was to compare a modified dyspnea index score at 10 and 20 minutes after randomization. Secondary outcomes were to determine if heliox decreased admission rates or endotracheal intubation. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference found at 10 or 20 minutes after randomization with heliox (P = .169 and P = .062, respectively). No statistical difference in admission rate was found, and no patients required endotracheal intubation in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that albuterol nebulized with heliox offered no clinical benefit over standard therapy in the initial treatment of moderately severe asthma in the ED.
  • Thorp A, Hurt T, Kim TY, Brown L. "Tracheoinnominate artery fistula: A rare and often fatal complication of indwelling tracheostomy tubes." Pediatric Emergency Care 21.11 (2005): 763-766. ( 1/2005 )
    Fistula formation between the innominate artery and the trachea is a rare but potentially catastrophic complication after tracheostomy. Although surgery is the definitive treatment of tracheoinnominate artery fistula, the responsibility for making the proper diagnosis and stabilizing the patient before surgery often falls on the personnel in the emergency department. We describe the emergency department management of a 14-year-old girl with a tracheoinnominate artery fistula. A discussion of the risk factors, diagnostic considerations, and emergency department management strategies of tracheoinnominate artery fistula is presented.